Archive for August, 2008

Prevost and Elliott at Sheldon Church
August 24, 2008

Graffiti on Sheldon Church Wall, 1826

Sheldon Church Ruins, October 10, 2006

Graffiti on Sheldon Church Wall, 1826

October 10, 2006–Beaufort County, South Carolina

Sir Christopher Prevost and Daniel Elliott escorted their ladies to Sheldon Church on this fine day. A few images of this outing are shown below.

Lady Dolores Prevost and Sir Christopher Prevost

Lady Dolores Prevost and Sir Christopher Prevost

Pillars of Doom

Pillars of Doom

Bonaventure Cemetery GPR Demonstration 2007
August 24, 2008

Besty Shirk, Michael Shirk & Rita Folse Elliott

Betsy Shirk, Michael Shirk & Rita Folse Elliott

GPR Capability

The LAMAR Institute, Inc.

P.O. Box 2992

Savannah, Georgia 31402


The LAMAR Institute is a 501(c) (3) organization whose mission is to conduct archaeological and historical research and educate the public about archaeology and history. The focus of the organization is on the Southeastern U.S. In 2001, the organization added Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey to its list of offered archaeological services. GPR survey is useful for creating 3-D subsurface maps of various cultural features, such as cemeteries and human graves, cellars, fortification ditches, and buried debris fields.

Field Methods

The LAMAR Institute GPR Team uses a RAMAC X3M Ground Penetrating Radar system (developed by Mala GeoScience). Shielded 500 MHz and 800 MHz antennae are used. Areas are typically surveyed with parallel radargrams spaced at 50 cm intervals. The GroundVision software program is used for data collection. Once it is collected, GPR field data is post-processed using Easy3D and GPR-Slice software. The field survey is accomplished by a two-person team.

Laboratory Analysis and Reporting

The GPR survey includes post-processing of the data and completion of a GPR Survey report. A series of GPR plan maps and side (profile views) are generated and included in the report. These maps will be annotated to areas of interest, which will be addressed in the report narrative. Examples of The LAMAR Institute’s GPR Survey reports are found on our website at Relevant GPR project reports found on this website include Report Numbers 61, 64, 73, 76, 88, and 102.

Staff and Corporate Qualifications

Mr. Daniel T. Elliott serves as top GPR specialist at the LAMAR Institute. Mr. Elliott has more than 32 years experience in professional archaeology in Georgia. He has served as Principal Investigator on dozens of archaeological projects in the Southeastern U.S. both large and small. He is recognized as a professional field archaeologist by the Register of Professional Archaeologists (RPA) and is a member in good standing (and past President of) the Georgia Council of Professional Archaeologists (GCPA). Mr. Elliott received his M.A. degree in 1980 in Anthropology from the University of Georgia and has since been employed by federal, state, and private corporations as an archaeologist. He currently serves as President of The LAMAR Institute, which is a non-profit organization in Georgia whose mission is to conduct archaeological research and promote education about archaeology and history in the Southeastern U.S. Mr. Elliott is trained and has more than seven years experience in the use of Ground Penetrating Radar on archaeological sites in Georgia and South Carolina.

Mr. Elliott has participated in GPR field training exercises in Denver, Colorado, Alexandria, Louisiana, Fort Frederica National Monument, Glynn County, Georgia and Athens,Georgia. These include classes taught by Dr. Larry Conyers and Dr. Dean Goodman. Both of these gentlemen are distinguished experts in the field of GPR survey and analysis, particularly in its application to archaeological sites. Mr. Elliott also has extensive experience in documenting and delineating historic and prehistoric sites in the Southeastern U.S. by using more traditional research methods.

A list of the LAMAR Institute’s past GPR projects include:


  • New Ebenezer and Jerusalem Cemetery, Effingham County
  • Horton House and DuBignon Cemetery, Jekyll Island, Glynn County
  • Sunbury, Sunbury Cemetery, and Fort Morris, Liberty County
  • Hope VI Development, Waldburg Street Site, Savannah, Chatham County,
  • Sansavilla Bluff, Wayne County
  • Woodbine Mound and historic cemetery, Camden County
  • North End Plantation, Ossabaw Island, Chatham County
  • Jones Cemetery, Greenwood Plantation, Thomas County
  • Bethel-Gould Cemetery, Chatham County
  • Gwinnett-Bosomworth Plantation, Liberty County
  • Fort St. Andrews, Camden County
  • Bullshead Bluff Cemetery, Camden County
  • St. Simons Village, Glynn County
  • Fort Hawkins, Bibb County
  • Nash Farm Battlefield, Henry County
  • Genesis Point Plantation, 4 Aboriginal Sites, Bryan County
  • Drudi Tract, Tybee Island, Chatham County
  • Railroad Ward, Savannah, Chatham County
  • Savannah Revolutionary War Battlefield, Chatham County

South Carolina

  • Beaufort National Cemetery Expansion, Beaufort County
  • Coosaw Island Community Center, Beaufort County
  • Theus Plantation, Beaufort County


The LAMAR Institute has a competitive pricing schedule for their GPR Survey work. The amount of area that can be covered on a weekly or daily basis is contingent on the ground conditions. Generally, survey can be accomplished at a rate of 1,600 square meters per day, or about two acre per week.

Daniel Thornton Elliott, Curriculum Vitae


B.A., Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1976

M.A., Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, 1980

Revolutionary War and War of 1812 Survey Training Course, Cultural Resources GIS, National Park Service, Horseshoe Bend, Alabama, 2001

Ground Penetrating Radar Training Course, Mala GeoScience USA, Charleston, SC, 2002

GPR Training Course, Larry Conyers, Denver University, Denver, CO, 2003

ArcGIS Training Course, ESRI, Charlotte, NC, 2004

GPR-Slice Training Course, v. 4.0 & v.5.0, Dean Goodman & USFS, Alexandria, LA, 2004 & 2005 & 2008

Professional Experience

1987-Present Research Archaeologist, LAMAR Institute, Inc., Savannah, GA.

1995-2004 Senior Archaeologist, Southern Research, Ellerslie, GA.

1998-1999 Archaeologist, Elderhostel Programs, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA.

1994-1995 Archaeologist, Diachronic Research Foundation, Columbia, S.C.

1992-1994 Senior Archaeologist, Garrow & Associates, Inc., Athens, GA.

1993 Archaeologist, French Huguenot Project, Francis Marion National Forest, S.C., Yale University.

1991 Archaeologist, Tutu Archaeological Project. St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands.

1990 Archaeologist, Hurricane Hugo Archaeological Recordation Project, Government of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas and St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands.

1990 Archaeologist, Law Environmental, Inc., Kennesaw, GA.

1989 Archaeologist, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, N.C.

1988-1992 Archaeologist, Southeastern Archeological Services, Inc., Athens, GA.

1988-1994 Archaeologist, New South Associates, Inc., Stone Mountain, GA.

1988-1990 Archaeologist, Brockington and Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

1987 Crew member, Petersburg Underwater Survey Project, Clark Hill Reservoir, GA. East Carolina University, Department of Maritime History and Underwater Research, Greenville, North Carolina.

1986 Volunteer, Lake Phelps Canoe Recordation Project, East Carolina University, Department of Maritime History and Underwater Research, Greenville, N.C.

1986 Volunteer, Underwater Field School, East Carolina University, Department of Maritime History and Underwater Research, Greenville, N.C. and the Bermuda Maritime Museum

1984-1988 Archaeologist, Garrow & Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

1982-1984 Archaeologist, Sumter & Francis Marion National Forests, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Greenwood, S.C.

1982 Archaeologist, Soil Systems, Inc., Marietta, GA.

1982 Archaeologist, Memphis State University, Department of Anthropology, Memphis, TN.

1981 Archaeologist, Gilbert Commonwealth Associates, Inc., Jackson, MI.

1981 Archaeologist, Southeastern Wildlife Services, Inc., Athens, GA.

1981 Archaeologist, Soil Systems, Inc., Topeka, KS.

1980-1981 Archaeologist, Southeastern Wildlife Services, Inc., Athens, GA.

1980 Archaeologist, Guy Weaver personal services contract with the TVA, Hartsville, TN.

1980 Archaeologist, University of Florida, Department of Anthropology, Gainesville, FL.

1977-1979 Archaeology Research Technician, University of Georgia, Department of Anthropology, Athens, GA.

Ground Penetrating Radar Experience

2002-GPR Survey, New Ebenezer, Effingham County, GA.

2002-GPR Survey, Fort Morris, Liberty County, GA.

2002-GPR Survey, Horton House and Plantation, Jekyll Island, GA.

2003-GPR Survey, Waldburg Street Site, Hope VI Development, Savannah, GA.

2004-GPR Survey, Sunbury, Liberty County, GA.

2004-GPR Survey, Sansavilla Bluff, Wayne County, GA.

2004-GPR Survey, Woodbine Mound and historic cemetery, Woodbine, GA.

2004-GPR Survey, Beaufort National Cemetery and Proposed Expansion Area, Beaufort, S.C.

2005-GPR Survey, North End Plantation, Ossabaw Island, GA.

2005-GPR Survey, Jones Cemetery, Greenwood Plantation, Thomasville, GA.

2005-GPR Survey, Bull Plantation, Coosaw Community Center, Coosaw Island, Beaufort County, S.C.

2006-GPR Survey, Gould-Bethel Cemetery, Chatham County, GA.

2006-GPR Survey, St. Simons Island Village, Glynn County, GA.

2006-GPR Survey, Fort Hawkins, Macon, GA.

2006-GPR Survey, Railroad Ward, Savannah, GA

2006-GPR Survey, Bosomworth-Gwinnett Plantation, St. Catherines Island, GA

2006-GPR Survey, Chocolate Plantation, Sapelo Island, GA

2006-GPR Survey, Tannery, Old Clinton, Jones County, GA

2006-GPR Survey, Fort St. Andrews, Cumberland Island, GA

2006-GPR Survey, Bullhead Bluff Cemetery, Camden County, GA

2006-GPR Survey, Beaulieu Plantation, Chatham County, GA

2007-GPR Survey, Nash Farm Battlefield, Lovejoy, GA

2007-GPR Survey, Fort Jackson National Historic Site, Savannah, GA

2008-GPR Survey, Theus Plantation, Beaufort County, SC

2008-GPR Survey, Savannah Revolutionary War Battlefield, Savannah, GA

Selected Publications

2002 Ground Penetrating Radar Survey at the Horton House Site. Rocquemore Radar Research, Box Springs, Georgia. Submitted to Southern Research, Ellerslie, Georgia.

2003 Archaeological Investigations at Fort Morris State Historic Site, Liberty County, Georgia. Southern Research, Ellerslie, Georgia.

Elliott, Daniel T., and K. E. Sassaman

1995 Archaic Period Archaeology of the Georgia Coastal Plain and Coastal Zone. Georgia Archaeological Research Design Papers Nos. 7 and 8. University of Georgia, Athens.

Elliott, Rita F., and D. T. Elliott

2000 Guten Tag Bubba: Germans in the Colonial South. In Colonial Adaptations to the New World: A View from Georgia and the Carolinas, edited by J. Joseph, III, and M. Zierden. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Mark Williams, and Daniel T. Elliott, editors

1998 A World Engraved, Archaeology of the Swift Creek Culture. University of Alabama Press, University, Alabama.

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Fort St. Andrews and Fort St. Simons
August 20, 2008

GPR Plan View of Block B, St. Simons Village

The LAMAR Institute archaeologists participated in the first scientific studies of two British colonial forts on two of Georgia’s barrier islands–Fort St. Andrews on Cumberland Island and Fort St. Simons on St. Simons Island. Both of these studies are documented in LAMAR Institute Publication Series reports, which are available online in .pdf format at the links below:

Fort St. Andrews (part of a larger study conducted for the National Park Service by Carolyn Rock),


Fort St. Simons (a joint effort by the LAMAR Institute and the Archaeological Services Unit, HPD, Georgia DNR),


Block E

Block E

Archaeological Study at Freetown, Grand Bahama Island
August 20, 2008

In September, 2007, the LAMAR Institute dispatched a team (Dan and Rita Elliott) to Grand Bahama Island to conduct archaeological work on the Freetown Cemetery and Freetown settlement. This project was divided into two phases. The primary goal was to “ground truth” the results from an earlier Ground Penetrating Radar survey of the Freetown cemetery and its surroundings that was conducted in July, 2007 by Dean Goodman and Kent Schneider.  This phase consisted of creating a detailed topographic map of the site and all above-ground cultural features and excavation of nine 2 m by 1 m test units on a variety of features and non-feature areas.  The second phase of the project was a brief reconnaissance of the Freetown settlement, which is an abandoned settlement located west of the cemetery. This village, which is thought to date to the 1830s and lasting into the 1960s, consists of a series of ruins and archaeological deposits now vegetated in jungle. The LAMAR Institute technical report on these investigations is available in .pdf format by clicking below:




Freetown Cemetery

Rio Guanajibo and LaGrange Gut
August 15, 2008

Daniel T. Elliott:
The LAMAR Institute, Inc.
Archaeological Survey of Two Watersheds: Rio Guanajibo, Puerto Rico and LaGrange Gut, St. Croix, U.S.V.I.

This poster highlights archaeological surveys of two watersheds in the Caribbean, Rio Guanajibo and LaGrange Gut, which were undertaken by the author. The Rio Guanajibo survey was conducted in 1986 by Garrow & Associates. This survey examined more than 4,000 acres in southwestern Puerto Rico. The study area extended from the headwaters of the Rio Rosaria to the Caribbean Sea at Mayaguez. Both studies, funded by the Jacksonville USACE, discovered undocumented aboriginal chert quarries and other notable sites. Historic towns in the Rio Guanajibo included San German– the second oldest city in Puerto Rico and Cabo Rojo. This was the first systematic study of this watershed since Rouse’s 1952 survey. The LaGrange Gut survey, conducted in 1992 by Southeastern Archaeological Services, examined a portion of southwestern St. Croix, U.S.V.I. While smaller in extent, LaGrange Gut included the historic town of Frederiksted and an early Moravian settlement.

Click below for a Powerpoint image summarizing these two projects:


LaGrange Plantation, St. Croix, USVI

LaGrange Plantation, St. Croix, USVI

Robbing from Point Peter to Pay Paul
August 7, 2008

An Update on the Future of Point Peter and Vicinity

Point Peter

Point Peter

Point Peter is located at the mouth of Point Peter Creek and the St. Mary’s River at the southeastern tip of Georgia, USA. This forlorn place was once the scene of great hustle and bustle, when the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy established it as a base of operations. In the 1790s, this spot was located at the international border of the U.S. and Spanish-held East Florida. The young U.S. Navy berthed many of their coastal gunboats at Point Peter. The U.S. Army established Fort Point Peter, which was by all accounts a most miserable duty station. The fort was attacked and burned by the British forces under Admiral Cockburn in January, 1815. This battle, which took place after peace was declared between the U.S. and Great Britain, was one of the few battles fought on Georgia soil in the War of 1812.

Point Peter was largely forgotten about 10 years ago. I began researching the place as part of a broader study of Georgia’s pre-Civil War period military fortifications. In the middle of my research, however, the proposed development of the area was announced by Land Resources. I hurried the completion of my manuscript on Point Peter and the other early forts along the St. Marys River in Georgia. That report is posted online (.pdf format) for free public download at the LAMAR Institute’s website. I sent a few dozen copies of that report to interested parties, or parties who should have been interested, and a flurry of bureaucratic events then followed. The end result is that the firm of Brockington & Associates was retained by Land Resources to survey and excavate portions of the Point Peter tract. I was not involved in that part of the story and I have not seen any reports of their work yet. I look forward to reading their version. The National Park Service has an exhibit in St. Marys that includes the Point Peter story. I went there to see it yesterday (August 6, 2008) with my niece from Thibadoux, Louisiana, but it was closed when it was supposed to be open. Waaah!!

To read my report, follow this link:

Click to access Publication%2062.pdf

or click here:


To learn about the NPS exhibit in St. Marys, follow these links:

To learn more about the natural resources threatened by the proposed marinas, follow this link:

Click to access factsheet.pdf

The story of Point Peter is deeply intertwined with that of Fort Hawkins, Georgia, which was another major U.S. Army post in the period before, during and after the War of 1812. But Fort Hawkins is another story covered elsewhere in this blog and at various locations online.

The story of Point Peter is an active one, as the newspaper article below demonstrates.

From the Atlanta-Journal Constitution:

Lawsuit could have far-reaching effect on Ga. coast
Development near Cumberland Island raises question of state’s responsibility on marinas, community docks

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Published on: 05/19/08 The Georgia Supreme Court heard arguments Monday in a case that could determine development along the state’s 100-mile coastline for generations.

The question the court is expected to answer is whether the 1970 Coastal Marshlands Protection Act requires the state to regulate the way land is developed behind marinas, community docks and bridges. This is the first time the state’s highest court will rule on the state law many environmentalists laud as Georgia’s most visionary environmental protection.

Center for a Sustainable Coast vs. Coastal Marshlands Protection Committee pits Georgia and an Atlanta developer against several environmental groups. The state and the developer, Atlantan J. Robert Ward, argued that the state’s power does not extend beyond the proposed marinas and community docks at Cumberland Harbour, a 1,085-house residential resort near the town of St. Marys.

The community, under construction on a peninsula surrounded mostly by tidal marshes, is in sight of the Cumberland Island National Seashore. Lots are being sold for $150,000 to $750,000. Forty houses have been built and 925 sites have been sold, the developer said.

Michael Landrum of Alpharetta, an early buyer in 2002, has been waiting to build on his lot until the case is resolved. He expected the marinas and docks to be under construction by now.

“We wouldn’t have wanted to buy into a place that was going to let development destroy the natural beauty,” Landrum said.

The lawsuit challenges a state permit issued to the developer in March 2005 that would allow more than 800 boats of all sizes in wet slips and dry dock storage in two marinas. It would be the largest marina complex on the Georgia coast, with 3.2 miles of docks, board walks and slips.

Environmentalists argue the state is obligated to protect the marshes from polluted runoff created by the houses, streets and other development around marinas and docks. They want the state to require the developer to prohibit any structures near the marsh and to filter, clean and reduce storm water runoff discharged into the marsh.

At stake, they say, are Georgia’s 382,000 acres of tidal marshes. The protective ribbon of sinewy gray-green grass outlining estuaries and tidal rivers is the nursery for crab, shrimp and some fish species.

The court has until the end of November to rule.

On Monday, the justices did not indicate how they might decide.

In their court filing, the environmentalists likened the state-owned marshlands to a state park and said the state “must balance the use of state-owned marshes for private benefit against the public’s interest in its property.”

An attorney for Ward, the developer who owns Point Peter LLP and Orlando-based Land Resource, argued he is already doing more than state and local laws require by leaving a 35-foot natural buffer between the marsh and construction instead of 25 feet. The development also has several storm-water ponds for collection.

Also, to protect the marshes, only 92 of a possible 300 private docks will be built, said the developer.

Will Hurst, spokesman for Land Resource, said it’s in the developer’s interest to protect the marsh. “That’s what we’re selling access to. . . vast marshes overlooking Cumberland Island,” he said.

A Proposed Search for the U.S. Gunboats at Home Port Point Peter

Click here:

for information on:

The St Marys Gunboat Project
Phases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
The Search for U.S. Navy Gunboats No. 161 & No. 164

A Historical Initiative Sponsored By:
Navy League of the United States,
Greater Golden Isles Council & Camden Kingsbay Council

Fort Frederica Teacher’s Workshop 2008
August 2, 2008

Yesterday marked the end of another successful Teacher’s Workshop at Fort Frederica National Monument and the Glynn County School’s Oglethorpe Point Elementary on St. Simons Island, Georgia.  The workshop was run by the two Ellens (Ellen Provenzano, Oglethorpe Point, and Ellen Strojan, NPS). Lecturers included myself, David C. Crass, Rita Folse Elliott,  Nicholas Honerkamp, Ellen Provenzano, Denise Spear, and Ellen Strojan. About 18 teachers from Glynn County participated. Most were 4th Grade teachers who will participate in the ongoing archaeology curriculum at Fort Frederica and Oglethorpe Point school.