Archive for the ‘South Carolina’ Category

Support the LAMAR Institute with your purchases
February 17, 2017

When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price to Lamar Institute, Inc.. Bookmark the link http://smile.amazon.com/ch/58-1537572

and support us every time you shop. Our research team stands ready to locate more Revolutionary War sites in interior Georgia, but an archaeologist travels on his/her stomach! Consider buying something today and route it through AmazonSmile, it really is easy with no strings attached!
Support L… See More
Support Lamar Institute, Inc. by shopping at AmazonSmile.
When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will donate to Lamar Institute, Inc.. Support us every time you shop.
smile.amazon.com

LETS GO KROGERING –For Archaeology!

Are you a Kroger shopper? Do you have a Kroger card? Do you love archaeology? Why not put all these together by adding the LAMAR institute to your list of Charitable Organizations that may benefit from your grocery shopping. The money comes from Kroger, so your money is safe. Just visit:

http://kroger.com    and login to your account. Then go to:

https://www.kroger.com/account/communityrewards/enroll

and enter LAMAR Institute or the Number 64275 to enroll in the program. I will let everyone know how this money raising effort progresses. I just registered our personal card to get it started.

CSS Georgia Teacher’s Workshop 2016
April 29, 2016

Teacher Institute flier CEISMC

From STEM to Stern: CSS Georgia Shipwreck
Teacher’s Institute

Dive into Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) as well as English Language Arts, and History/Social Studies in this exciting Teachers’ Institute focusing on the Civil War ironclad shipwreck sunk in 1864 in the Savannah River adjacent to Savannah and recovered in 2015 by underwater archaeologists. Use elements from the wreck, its history, and underwater archaeology to engage your students in learning state performance standards as well as Next Generation Science Standards. As a workshop attendee you will participate in a variety of hands-on activities that you can replicate in your classroom, have the opportunity to question underwater archaeologists following presentations, collect sonar data with underwater archaeologists in a boat over the wreck site, gather and interpret data, create your own lesson plans, and obtain resource materials for your classroom. The workshop is recommended for 4th-12th grade teachers and is open to a total of 20 teachers from Bryan, Chatham, Effingham, and Liberty counties, Georgia and Jasper and Beaufort counties, South Carolina. The workshop will be held May 31-June 3, 2016, with the final presentation and luncheon day on Friday, July 29, 2016. Participants will earn 4 PLUs and receive a $400 stipend. Except for the field trip, the workshop will be held at Georgia Tech Savannah, 210 Technology Circle, Savannah, Georgia 31407. The workshop is funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Savannah District as part of the public outreach for its CSS Georgia recovery related to the Savannah Harbor Expansion Project. The workshop is hosted by Georgia Tech, Center for Education Integrating Science, Mathematics and Computing (CEISMC) in partnership with the USACE. Space is limited. To register please go to: pe.gatech.edu/teacher-institute. For questions contact: Rita Elliott at ritafelliott@gmail.com

A Chapter on Ebenezer Ceramics
March 27, 2016

Connections: Georgia in the World: The Seventh Henry D. Green Symposium of the Decorative Arts
Paperback: 224 pages
Publisher: Georgia Museum of Art; 1st edition (February 1, 2016)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0915977923
ISBN-13: 978-0915977925
7thGreen
This volume includes the following papers delivered at the seventh Henry D. Green Symposium of the Decorative Arts, held Jan. 30 through Feb. 1, 2014: “Revealing Georgia: Viewing the Cultural Landscape through Prints and Maps,” by Margaret Beck Pritchard; “Utilitarian Earthenware in the Ebenezer Settlement, Effingham County, Georgia,” by Daniel T. Elliott; “Worldly Goods for a Chosen People: The Material Culture of Savannah s Colonial Jewish Community,” by Daniel Kurt Ackermann; “Considerations of William Verelst s ‘The Common Council of Georgia Receiving the Indian Chiefs,’ 1734 36,” by Kathleen Staples; “Materiality in the Gullah Geechee Culture: The Kitchen in the Heart of the Story,” by Althea Sumpter; “Colonial South Carolina Indigo: Red, White, and Black Made Blue,” by Andrea Feeser; “Scarf and Dress Designs by Frankie Welch: Highlighting Georgia Through Her Americana,” by Ashley Callahan; “Georgia’s Textile Connections: Imports, Homespun and Industry,” by Madelyn Shaw; “Weaving History: The Yeoman, the Slave, the Coverlet,” by Susan Falls and Jessica R. Smith; “Capitalism and Revolution: A Staffordshire Mug and Its Anti-Monarchial Message,” by Lauren Word; “Sumptuous Goods: The McKinne-Whitehead-Rowland Collection at the Georgia Museum of Art,” by Julia N. Jackson; “Valley View: Reflecting on a Place, Its People, and Its Furnishings,” by Maryellen Higginbotham; “Mexican Silver in an Antebellum Georgia Household,” by Carolyn Shuler; “From London to Shanghai, 1780 1920: How Five Generations of Yonges and Brownes Brought Their Silver to Columbus, Georgia,” by Sandra Strother Hudson; and “Shopping from London to Naples for a Future Country Palace in Macon: William and Anne Tracy Johnston on the Grand Tour, 1851 1854,” by Jonathan H. Poston, as well as a foreword by museum director William Underwood Eiland and acknowledgments and a focus on a recent acqusition by Dale L. Couch, curator, Henry D. Green Center for the Study of the Decorative Arts. Full-color illustrations throughout.

YOU SAY YOU WANT A REVOLUTION: 18th Century Conflict Archaeology in the Savannah River Watershed of Georgia and South Carolina.–with apologies to J.L.
October 12, 2015

Dan at Boston Public Library in a RESTRICTED AREA, December 2014

Dan at Boston Public Library in a RESTRICTED AREA, December 2014

From Connect Savannah, “Lecture: You Say You Want a Revolution
When: Tue., Oct. 13, 6:30 p.m.
This lecture, part of a series by the Coastal Heritage Society about the American Revolution, will examine the Battle of Savannah from an archaeological perspective.

The Savannah History Museum
303 Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd. Savannah-Downtown
phone 912-651-6840
http://www.chsgeorgia.org/

AND from DoSavannah:

Dan and Rita Elliott from the LAMAR Institute will present “You Say You Want a Revolution: 18th Century Conflict Archaeology in the Savannah River Watershed of Georgia and South Carolina,” which explores the Battle of Savannah from an archaeological perspective, along with other Revolutionary War battles in the area and the archaeology, and how they are all inter-related. The lecture takes place in the theater at 7 p.m., with refreshments served at 6:30 p.m. Free and open to all. Learn more at http://www.chsgeorgia.org.
Tuesday October 13, 2015 6:30pm – 7:30pm
Savannah History Museum Auditorium (303 MLK Jr. Blvd.)

And From heyevent.com:

Revolutionary Perspectives 2015: DANIEL ELLIOTT & RITA ELLIOTT

On October 13th, DANIEL ELLIOTT & RITA ELLIOTT from the LAMAR Institute will explore the Battle of Savannah from an archaeological perspective! Lectures begin at Savannah History Museum at 7:00pm with a preceeding reception starting at 6:30pm.

YOU SAY YOU WANT A REVOLUTION: 18th Century Conflict Archaeology in the Savannah River Watershed of Georgia and South Carolina.

DANIEL ELLIOTT, M.A., R.P.A., has 38 years of experience in historical archaeology. He has served as president of the LAMAR Institute since 2000. Mr. Elliott is an expert on the archaeology and history of the Savannah River watershed having working throughout the region since 1979. His expertise in battlefield archaeology has developed since the late 1980s and he has explored battlefields and fortifications in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Puerto Rico, Saipan, South Carolina, the Virgin Islands, and Virginia. He has directed archaeological research projects on the Revolutionary War sites of Carr’s Fort, Fort Morris, Kettle Creek, New Ebenezer, and Sunbury, Georgia, and provided expertise on the study of the Battle of Brier Creek. He is currently finalizing a battlefield survey report on the Battle of Purysburg and Black Swamp, South Carolina, through a National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program grant. Mr. Elliott also directed multiple historical research projects throughout Ireland, Scotland, and England, as well as in archives and repositories throughout the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean.

RITA FOLSE ELLIOTT, M.A., R.P.A. is the Education Coordinator and a Research Associate with The LAMAR Institute. She earned an M.A. in Maritime History and Underwater Research from East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina. She is an archaeologist, exhibit designer, and former museum curator. She has 30 years of archaeological experience in 13 states, the Caribbean, three U.S. territories, and several countries. Ms. Elliott led crews in the archaeological discovery of the 1779 Savannah Battlefield. She authored over 80 monographs and articles, and served as a guest editor and reviewer. She has sat on committees for museum and archaeology organizations at the state, regional, and national level and is former Vice Chair of the Georgia National Register Review Board. Ms. Elliott was named an Honoree by the Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation/Georgia Commission on Women, and received the Joseph Caldwell Award for Georgia Archaeology, the Georgia Governor’s Award in the Humanities, and a life-time achievement award in archaeology education from the Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution.

http://www.thelamarinstitute.org

This project is supported by the Georgia Humanities Council and the National Endowment for the Humanities and through appropriations from the Georgia General Assembly.

http://www.georgiahumanities.org/abou…
http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org
https://www.facebook.com/georgiahuman…

[Rita and I hope that you can make it to the lecture. We will post our presentation online at thelamarinstitute.org at a future date. Most of the archaeological work described in our lecture was funded by the National Park Service, American Battlefield Protection Program and Preserve America Program and the usual disclaimers apply. Thanks also our other supporters to Cypress Cultural Consultants, LLC, the City of Sylvania, the U.S. and Georgia Departments of Transportation, Coastal Heritage Society, Kettle Creek Battlefield Association, Plum Creek Foundation, The LAMAR Institute, Southeastern Archeological Services, Bruker Corporation and many private individuals for making it all possible.]

Rita at work, December 2014

Rita at work, December 2014

Battle of Purysburg News Story
August 5, 2015

Click here to read today’s news story in the Jasper Sun Times:

http://www.jaspersuntimes.com/news/2015-08-05/breath-life-battle-purrysburg

Purysburg Battlefield Survey
January 8, 2015

PRESS RELEASE
The LAMAR Institute
For release Wednesday, January 8, 2015

Public invited to archaeology presentation about ongoing search for sites of Revolutionary War Battles of Purysburg & Black Swamp, South Carolina

LAMAR Institute archaeologists will offer information about this project to the public and invite participants to share information as well. The presentation will include information gathered from historical documents during a recent research trip to Washington, D.C., New York, and Boston. The presentation will examine how archaeologists are conducting the survey on the colonial town of Purysburg, South Carolina in search of key elements of the Revolutionary War battle there in 1779. Researchers will apply systematic battlefield archaeology techniques to discover elements of the town and its battlefield. Archaeologists are focused on the American Patriot headquarters at Purysburg and Black Swamp and the soldiers garrisoned there.

A second presentation at this time by the South Carolina Battleground Preservation Trust will detail that organization’s work to identify historic earthworks, roads, and other landscapes in Jasper and Charleston counties. The presentations will be at the Bluffton Branch Library (843) 255-6490, 120 Palmetto Way, Bluffton, South Carolina, 29910 on January 17, 2015, from 1:30-2:30 p.m. It is free and open to the public.

Quick Facts:

• This is a two-year project with various phases of research, field work, lab work, and report writing.
• Purysburg, South Carolina became an important location in the American Revolution following the 1778 British shift to the southern theater of the war in Georgia and South Carolina.
• Following the British taking of Savannah, Georgia in 1778, American Major General Benjamin Lincoln established his headquarters at Purysburg to regroup Patriot forces and hold the Savannah River as the front line.
• The Patriots established its secondary headquarters at Black Swamp, north of Purysburg.
• For the next several months, thousands of Patriot troops in the area held a stand-off with thousands of their British counterparts located across the Savannah River at New Ebenezer, Georgia.
• Prior to the British attempt to take Charleston, South Carolina, British Major General Augustin Prevost’s troops engaged the Patriots in a brief battle at Purysburg.
• Patriot troops commanded by General Moultrie retreated to Charleston to fortify that town in advance of Prevost’s expected attack there.
• The 32-year-old LAMAR Institute is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization with the mission to promote archaeological research and public education in the southeastern United States.
• The LAMAR Institute and its associates have been awarded and/or involved in eight NPS American Battlefield Protection Program grants since 2001.

For more information or to schedule an interview with archaeologists, please contact Dan Elliott at dantelliott@gmail.com or (706) 341.7796. For more information about The LAMAR Institute visit http://www.thelamarinstitute.org

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior. The Bluffton Branch Library is not a sponsor of this program.

Dynamic Duo? Smash! Bang! Pow! %#&@!
November 11, 2014

Rita's Lifetime Achievement Award in Archaeo-Education

Rita’s Lifetime Achievement Award in Archaeo-Education

Dan's Lifetime Achievement Award in Archaeology

Dan’s Lifetime Achievement Award in Archaeology

Rita Folse Elliott and Daniel Elliott both were recognized by the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution at Its Revolutionary War Roundtable held in Washington, Georgia on Saturday, November 8, 2014. Rita was given an award for her lifetime of service as an Archaeo-Educator and Dan was given an award for a lifetime of service as an Archaeologist. Both were bestowed with this rank by the presentation of elegant golden gorgets with the appropriate engraving. Truly this is a great honor for two of The LAMAR Institute’s research team!

News from Kettle Creek
October 8, 2014

Kettle Creek Battlefield to develop conceptual plan

(Flash! From The News-Reporter, October 9, 2014)

The Kettle Creek Battlefield Association, Inc. (KCBA) recently signed an agreement for development of a conceptual plan for a Kettle Creek Battlefield Park. The plan would be developed by the Carl Vinson Institute of Government, University of Georgia (CVIOG), and was signed by Walker Chewning, president of KCBA and Jere Morehead, president of the university.

[dan says, “Great! The more the merrier.”]

AND this story from October 2nd:

Harley makes donation to help preserve Kettle Creek Battlefield

LAMAR Institute Awarded $87600 National Park Service 2014 Grant
July 23, 2014

Modern aerial view of Purysburg, South Carolina

Modern aerial view of Purysburg, South Carolina

NPS-pressrelease-Purysburg-7-2014

The LAMAR Institute has been awarded a research grant from the National Park Service’s American Battlefield Protection Program to document the Purysburg (S.C.) Revolutionary War battlefield and American headquarters complex. To learn more:

http://www.nps.gov/abpp/grants/battlefieldgrants/2014grantawards.htm

Efforts underway to preserve Revolutionary War battlefield | The Augusta Chronicle
April 13, 2014

Caledonia is a Rock Star!! Brier Creek! Brier Creek! Caledonia! Caledonia!

Efforts underway to preserve Revolutionary War battlefield | The Augusta Chronicle.

Efforts underway to preserve Revolutionary War battlefield

Dan and Caledonia at Brier Creek finding a truck's chrome tailpipe!

Dan and Caledonia at Brier Creek finding a truck’s chrome tailpipe!


By Rob Pavey
Outdoors Editor
Friday, April 11, 2014 7:59 PM

SYLVANIA, Ga. — More than two centuries after a daring British surprise attack routed American forces at Brier Creek, new efforts are underway to preserve one of Georgia’s least explored Revolutionary War sites.

“This battlefield has all the components very rarely seen in preservation,” said archaeologist Dan Battle, who has spent the past year assessing the Screven County historic site to determine what secrets it might still hold.

The Battle of Brier Creek unfolded March 3, 1779, when a British force of 1,500 men led by Col. Marc Prevost circled back on Gen. John Ashe’s encamped Patriot army, which included about 1,700 soldiers.

The late afternoon attack was a complete surprise. About 150 Americansdied, while hundreds of others were captured. The fleeing survivors left behind their arms, food and supplies.

The British victory was so decisive scholars believe it prolonged the American Revolution by a year, changing the course of U.S. history.

Today, much of the site lies within the 15,100-acre Tuckahoe Wildlife Management Area owned by the state of Georgia and managed for hunting and fishing – but not specifically for historic preservation. Portions of the battlefield and related camps sprawl onto private tracts. Although the area is marked by a bronze historical commission marker erected in 1956, little has been done in terms of formal archaeology.

Battle’s company, Cypress Cultural Consultants, began evaluating the area last year with funding from a Transportation Enhancement Act matching grant obtained by the city of Sylvania.

Objectives of the cursory assessment include pinpointing certain battle features – and possibly graves of the soldiers who died there.

Although a final report isn’t due until later this year, the results are encouraging.

Using technology known as LiDAR, which stands for Light Detection and Ranging, three-dimensional maps were used to identify the defensive line hastily arranged by the Patriot forces. Further studies helped locate other key areas, which are remarkably intact.

“The American camp is still in good shape – not pilfered,” Battle said. “We’ve also come across a site where the Patriots were manufacturing musket balls, which is unique in its own right.”

Teams extracted about 600 items that were carefully preserved and recorded and will undergo curation and analysis at University of Georgia. “There are things from the camp, from the American lines – and we even know where the exchange of gunfire occurred,” he said.

As historic battle sites go, Brier Creek’s remoteness is part of its charm – and also its curse.

“The only thing that happened out there was the battle – then it got left alone,” he said. “It’s one of the best preserved sites in the country.”

Its secluded setting, however, makes it vulnerable to tampering by relic looters, and possible degradation through land management programs, such as timber harvesting.

Lee Taylor, regional game management supervisor for Georgia’s Wildlife Resources Division, said state officials are doing all they can to protect the resources at Tuckahoe, but will need a final report with hard data and recommendations.

“We are anticipating getting the final report from the surveyors by the end of the year, so Wildlife Resources Division and the Historical Preservation Division can develop a comprehensive management plan for the WMA,” Taylor said. “To date we have received no information from the survey.”

In the meantime, DNR keeps the area patrolled and under the watch of its officers, who will arrest anyone caught digging or looting. The area is also posted to warn against using metal detectors.

Maintenance at Tuckahoe, including road scraping, is conducted carefully and will not include any excavations deeper than past activities, Taylor said.

Any proposed logging activity will be screened by the Historic Preservation Division’s Archaeology Section, he said. Currently, however, “no timber operations have been proposed for Tuckahoe WMA.”

The ultimate objective, he said, will be to preserve the area’s cultural resources while also making sure Tuckahoe remains available to the public for hunting and fishing – the purposes for which most of the site was purchased in 1989, using license fee revenues from Georgia’s anglers and hunters.

“The Georgia DNR will continue to rigorously protect intact portions of the site and ensure the entire battlefield is managed appropriately,” Taylor said.

One of the biggest mysteries of the Battle of Brier Creek involves where the American soldiers killed in battle were buried, and by whom.

Based on details from comparable battles of the Revolutionary War, the dead were likely moved into piles, near where they fell, and are probably in mass graves, Battle said.

As far as who buried them, one piece of the puzzle turned up in an unlikely place: the archival records of the Dallas (Texas) Historical Society.

It was there that references were found that the British Army’s 71st Highlanders ordered Loyalists from nearby South Carolina to bury the casualties, starting the day after the battle. Other clues emerged from maps and regimental records identified in the New York Public Library.

Efforts to locate graves have included the use of “cadaver dogs” specially trained to detect the scent of human remains, even if those remains are centuries old. The surveys yielded positive hits, but further studies would be needed to confirm what lies beneath the surface soil.

Battle believes the presence of Patriot casualties should earn the site more attention in the future.

“Over 150 U.S. soldiers and militia are buried on the battlefield, not found or ever celebrated by America,” he said, adding that George Washington is believed to have visited the area during his Southern tour and said prayers for the killed Americans.

“The forces at Brier Creek were a multinational force that included soldiers from almost every state of the 13,” he said. “Many of Georgia’s Continentals were actually recruited from Pennsylvania and Virginia.”

Preliminary findings will likely recommend more detailed explorations in the future, but such projects are expensive – and tend to move slowly.

“That’s why one of the most needed things at the site is a management plan,” said Dan Elliott, president of The Lamar Institute, a non-profit group that works with universities and state and federal agencies to conduct archaeological research.

The findings so far indicate the battlefield was impacted by farming – in particular plowing – in the past, but is still relatively intact.

“In the bigger picture, things aren’t too bad,” Elliott said. “Plowing disturbs things, but even if some of the site was farmed over the centuries, it doesn’t move things too far.”

Many artifacts discovered by the teams were left “in situ,” or in place, without being disturbed. Items were removed only from the shallow surface layer of disturbed soil, or “plow zone,” he said, and deeper items that were identified and left alone were mapped for future reference.

Although the lead musket balls and decaying metal fragments buried in the sandy soil have little monetary value, they have a tremendous value in their ability to tell a compelling story if properly extracted, Battle said.

“It’s really rare to be able to put things you find in the ground into a particular day and year,” he said. “Usually, you’re lucky if you can even get the right century. We have a chance, right here in this battlefield, to study that.”

Kettle Creek battle site expands with 60-acre purchase
January 22, 2014

Great News from Wilkes County!

Kettle Creek battle site expands with KCBA’s 60-acre purchase.

Gators in Brier Creek
January 2, 2014

SAR Samuel Elbert Chapter Presents Award to Daniel Elliott, December, 2013.

SAR Samuel Elbert Chapter Presents Award to Daniel Elliott, December, 2013.

Dan-Award2013aEnd of the year report on our Revolutionary War research in Georgia! The big gators were out on New Years Eve (2013) at Brier Creek. The LAMAR archaeologists are busy finding our Revolutionary War history in the ground. A recent Associated Press news story highlighted our archival research on the Revolutionary War in Georgia, which appeared in many news outlets. We are busy writing grant proposals for other revolutionary War battlefields in the Carolinas. Next week my colleague P.T. and I are giving a paper in Quebec at the Society for Historical Archaeology meeting on our 100+ horseshoes from the Carr’s Fort battlefield landscape in Wilkes County, Georgia. Busy times here in south Georgia. We look forward to writing up some of these stories for the public in 2014. Happy New Year!

Kettle Creek battlefield group gets support from state SAR
October 30, 2013

Kettle Creek battlefield group gets support from state SAR.

Small Skirmish in the War for Freedom
September 8, 2013

Small Skirmish in the War for Freedom.

Frontier fort from Revolutionary War found in Ga.
May 9, 2013

Frontier fort from Revolutionary War found in Ga..

Carr’s Fort Nailed
May 8, 2013

Here is a link to today’s article in Augusta’s Metro Spirit about our Carr’s Fort Battlefield discovery:

http://www.metrospirit.com/?p=7122

The News-Reporter, Washington, Georgia also had a feature story on the find in this weeks paper. It is free to subscribers at:

http://www.news-reporter.com/

And freely released to the general public in two weeks.

The story also ran in the online version of Spiegel magazine in Germany at this link:

http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/mensch/archaeologie-reich-der-kerma-am-nil-roemer-im-alten-aegypten-a-897904-4.html

I guess a little got lost in the translation. Carr’s Fort is in Georgia, not Virginia.

A version was posted in the e-zine PastHorizons.com in England yesterday.

Russ Bynum’s Associated Press story appeared in well over 300 media outlets in the U.S., as well as Algeria, Ghana and Australia. And probably hundreds more that I am not aware of.

Archaeologists Discover Revolutionary War Carr’s Fort on Georgia Frontier
April 30, 2013

Wilkes County, Georgia – Archaeologists with the LAMAR Institute discovered the location of Carr’s Fort, a significant frontier fortification that was attacked on February 10, 1779. The discovery was funded through grants from the National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program, Kettle Creek Battlefield Association, and The LAMAR Institute. The month-long search by a team of six researchers encompassed more than 2,700 wooded acres of the Beaverdam Creek watershed. Battlefield archaeology at Carr’s Fort yielded about a dozen fired musket balls, several musket parts and several hundred iron and brass items from the 18th century.
Robert Carr was a Captain in the Georgia Patriot militia and by 1778 his frontier home became a fort for more than 100 soldiers. In late 1778, the British launched a campaign to reclaim the southern colonies, which included a major recruitment effort among the frontier settlers. On February 10, Carr’s Fort was occupied by 80 Loyalists (Tories) led by captains John Hamilton and Dougald Campbell. Almost immediately, 200 Georgia and South Carolina Patriot militia, who had been hot on the trail of the Loyalists, laid siege to the fort in an attempt to take it back. An intense fire fight raged for several hours, in which more than a dozen were killed or wounded on each side. Patriot forces, commanded by Colonel Andrew Pickens, were ordered to break off the siege after he received word of that larger party of 750 Loyalists advancing from the Carolinas. The Patriots rode off taking the Loyalist’s horses and baggage with them. The Loyalists marched several hundred miles back south to rejoin the main British invasion force. Several weeks later, Captain Carr was killed at his home by a raiding party of Loyalist Creek Indians, while his wife and children escaped.
“The search for Carr’s Fort was like looking for a needle in a haystack, only harder. We had no map and few descriptions of the fort, so its location was entirely unknown. Historians and land surveyors provided some clues to about a dozen potential target areas, which helped narrow the search. The LAMAR field team discovered Carr’s Fort on the last hour of the last day of the field project. Although our funds were depleted, I had no trouble convincing my crew to return with me to volunteer with me for another day or two to better establish the identity of the archaeological finds as Carr’s Fort”, stated Daniel Elliott, President of the LAMAR Institute. The archaeological team used metal detectors to systematically comb the woods for any evidence of the fort and battlefield. Each find was labeled and carefully plotted using GPS technology. More than a dozen 18th century settlements were located, but none of these proved to be the fort.
Wilkes County was a hot-bed of revolutionary fervor during the American Revolution. The discovery of the archaeological remains of Carr’s Fort indicates great potential that remnants of more than 30 other forts in Wilkes County may still exist. The identification of such resources can provide important new information on Georgia’s role in the American Revolution and how this international conflict affected remote frontier settlements.
Researching, locating, identifying, and interpreting fortifications and battlefields is one of The LAMAR Institute’s research focuses. This includes the Colonial, Revolutionary War, War of 1812, and the Civil War periods. Prior investigation of Revolutionary War sites has included the battle fields of Kettle Creek, New Ebenezer, Sansavilla Bluff, Savannah, and Sunbury. A complete report on the Carr’s Fort Battlefield project will be available to the public in early 2014.

Supplemental: And I forgot to note, thus far we have seen zero evidence for cannibalism at the site. Metadata: cannibalism

Search for Revolutionary War fort here recalls Wilkes families frontier history
March 7, 2013

Search for Revolutionary War fort here recalls Wilkes families frontier history.

Archaeologists searching for long-lost Wilkes fort, Revolutionary-era items
March 7, 2013

Archaeologists searching for long-lost Wilkes fort, Revolutionary-era items.

Great New Book Out! particularly Chapter 11.
November 1, 2012

Rita Ann Veronica Folse Elliott, M.A., R.P.A., G.C.P.A. has yet another publication under her garter. It is an edited volume by Todd Andrlik, entitled “Reporting the Revolutionary War: Before It was History It was News”. On sale now at Amazon.com and other fine book vendors. Follow this link:

http://www.amazon.com/Reporting-Revolutionary-War-Before-History/dp/1402269676/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1351788719&sr=8-1&keywords=Reporting+the+American+Revolution+andrlik

Reporting the Revolutionary War

On Sale Starting November 1, 2012

LAMAR Institute awarded grant to find Carr’s Fort battlefield
July 10, 2012

Official NPS press release for our grant project award.

The LAMAR Institute Inc. (Georgia) $68,527
During the American Revolution, Georgia was the scene of vicious fighting between Loyalist and
Patriot forces. One such engagement was the little known siege of Carr’s Fort which began February
11, 1779. The LAMAR Institute intends to locate Carr’s Fort archeologically and delineate the
battlefield boundaries around it. It is hoped that by identifying this site they will be able to shed some
light on this turbulent time.

NPSpressrelease7-9-12

 

 

 

Front Page News of The News-Reporter (Washington, Georgia) for August 23, 2012, written by the editor of the newspaper:

Wilkes County’s ‘pristine’ Kettle Creek site gets state, federal grant money to develop

Calling the Wilkes County battle site at Kettle Creek “the most pristine Revolutionary War site left in the United States,” a new advisory committee met recently to kick off a study to formulate a land use plan for the site.

Led by the Community Affairs Department of the Central Savannah River Area Regional Commission and funded by a state grant, the plan will provide a working foundation for economic use and development, said committee member Tom Owen. “In addition to Kettle Creek, Wilkes County has a watershed of Revolutionary and Colonial assets. Directly associated with the Kettle Creek battle was the siege at Carr’s Fort. In July 2012, the Lamar Institute was awarded a federal grant for the archeological study of this Wilkes County Revolutionary War asset, which in the long term will bind the two locations.”

The Kettle Creek project has been the primary objective of the Kettle Creek Battlefield Association (KCBA), which is working towards the preservation and educational development of the historic site. “The battlefield area is recognized as perhaps the most pristine Revolutionary War site left in the United States,” Owen said, “and as a strategic untapped economic asset for Washington-Wilkes and Georgia.”

Project lead from the CSRA Regional Commission’s Planning Department will be Christian Lentz with Jason Hardin as research and plan developer, along with Anne Floyd, Director of Local Government Services at CSRA RDC. The Kettle Creek Advisory Committee will hold additional meetings in 2012 on October 16 and December 11, as well as a final meeting on February 13, 2013.

Owen said that a public meeting and open house is being planned for a date yet to be determined. The Kettle Creek Battlefield Association has provided the primary leadership toward driving this project and for the preservation efforts. The KCBA membership has been joined by the state organizations of the Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution from Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, and South Carolina, as well as members in 15 states as far away as the West coast, he said.

In addition to the CSRA personnel, the committee members in attendance included Joseph Harris, KCBA; Thomas Owen, KCBA; Betty Slaton, KCBA; David Tyler, Wilkes County administrator; Jim Rundorff, Plum Creek Forestry director; Walker Chewning, KCBA; David Jenkins, City of Washington economic development director; Jenny Clarke, executive director, Washington-Wilkes Chamber of Commerce; Stephanie Macchia, Washington Historical Museum director; Emory Burton, KCBA, and Steven Rauch, U.S. Army command historian, Fort Gordon.

http://newsreporter.our-hometown.com/news/2012-08-23/Front_Page/Wilkes_Countys_pristine_Kettle_Creek_site_gets_sta.html

DAR members hear program about Kettle Creek site archaeological finds
May 27, 2012

DAR members hear program about Kettle Creek site archaeological finds.

Dan Elliott of the Lamar Institute in Savannah presented the program to members of the Kettle Creek Chapter NSDAR and guests at the meeting Monday, January 19, at the Washington Woman’s Club.

Mr. Elliott, who resides in Rincon, spoke on the topic “Archaeological Finds at the Kettle Creek Battle Site.”

Introduced by the January program chairman, Nancy Sisson, Mr. Elliott presented the interesting program on the results of an indepth research study of the Kettle Creek Battle site conducted by the Institute. The study, funded by the National Park Service and the City of Washington, included archaeological finds as well as genealogical information and other studies of the site. The Battle of Kettle Creek took place on February 14, l779, in Wilkes County and was a moral victory for the Patriots. Much of the findings and collections will be placed in the Washington-Wilkes Historical Museum.

Prior to his presentation Anneice Butler, co-regent, presided. Ginny Broome, chaplain, led the chapter in the opening rituals and offered the blessing for the delicious lun- cheon.

After the luncheon and program, Mrs. Butler conducted the business meeting. Milly Arnold gave the National Defense message on the upcoming celebrations being planned for the 200th anniversary of the birthday of Abraham Lincoln. Carol Faz, co-regent, reminded the club of the recognition of the Founding of Washington to be held at Fort Washington on January 23 at 1:30 p.m.

Other items of business were conducted before the meeting adjourned.

Members present were Ginny Broome, Nancy Sisson, Oleta McAvoy, Laura Toburen, Anneice Butler, Carol Faz, Louise Burt, Lou Singleton, Mary Ann Bentley, Edith Lindsey, Milly Arnold, Maxine Singleton, Anna Gunter, Phyllis Scarborough, Michelle Smith, Paula Butts, Debra Denard, Rosalee Haynes, Joanne Pollock, Linda Chesnut, Kathryn Sanders, Suzette Kopecky, Jane Burton, Carol Crowe Carraco, Betty Slaton and Kathy Dinneweth. Guests included David Denard, Stephanie Macchia, Jennifer Atchison and Dan Elliott.

The History Underneath
May 8, 2012

The History Underneath.

The LAMAR Institute is proud to be a co-sponsor of the upcoming discussion on Archaeology in Savannah on May 12, 2012 (2PM) at Trinity Methodist Church on Telfair Square. Interested folks may wish to attend.

The pictured Rita Elliot looks a lot like a Rita Elliott that I know.

Chatham Commissioners designate Pennyworth Island as historic following swampy slog | savannahnow.com
July 13, 2011

Chatham Commissioners designate Pennyworth Island as historic following swampy slog | savannahnow.com.

Savannah’s Revolutionary War Discoveries | WSAV TV
February 2, 2011

Savannah’s Revolutionary War Discoveries | WSAV TV.

An earlier Civil War battle in Savannah, 1779
January 14, 2011

On October 9, 1779 American and British armies clashed on the west side of Savannah, Georgia. The armies and their allies, including Haitian, Irish, Scottish, German, African-American, Polish, and Danish officers and private soldiers, engaged in a deadly conflict that proved to be one of the costliest for the Americans in the American Revolution. The war in the South was pretty much a civil war, as neighbors split between Patriots and Loyalists. Savannah contains the forensic evidence of this battle, as unearthed by archaeologists. Come hear this story on February 1, 2011 in Savannah. The LAMAR Institute is proud to be one of the sponsors of this important work.

Archaeology Press Release January 14 2011by Savannah Under Fire on Friday, January 14, 2011 at 5:35pm

What ever happened to all that Revolutionary War archaeology being done in Savannah? What did archaeologists discover? How can people who live, work, and play in Savannah and Chatham County become involved with archaeological sites? Can preserving sites help the area’s economy and quality of life? Come to an archaeology presentation and public meeting Feb. 1, 2011 to find out and to offer suggestions. Coastal Heritage Society will reveal Revolutionary War discoveries in Savannah stemming from the two “Savannah Under Fire” projects conducted from 2007-2011. The projects uncovered startling discoveries, including trenches, fortifications, and battle debris. The research also showed that residents and tourists are interested in these sites. Archaeologists will describe the findings and explore ways to generate economic income and increase the quality of life of area residents. Following the presentation the public will be invited to offer comments and suggestions about such resources. Don’t miss this rare opportunity to provide input. The meeting is sponsored by the Coastal Heritage Society, through a grant from the National Park Service, American Battlefield Protection Program. It is free and open to the public. Time: 6-7 p.m. Location: Savannah History Museum auditorium, 303 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd, Savannah, Georgia (same building as the Visitors’ Center on MLK). Date: Feb. 1, 2011. Thanks!!

Donate to LAMAR Institute–Carr’s Fort Project and Beyond
December 30, 2010

DONATE TO LAMAR INSTITUTE–Support Our Research for 2013!

http://www.razoo.com/story/Lamar-Institute

Here are some of our active projects that could use some financial support:

  • Pre-Civil War Forts Inventory
  • Skeletons in The Closet Initiative
  • The Lost City Survey
  • Native Georgia Landscapes
  • Fort Hawkins Archaeological Project

DONATE TO LAMAR INSTITUTE–Support Our Research for 2013!

http://www.razoo.com/story/Lamar-Institute

Get Your Archaeology Books? Support Archaeology!
December 30, 2010

http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=mrsoap-20&o=1&p=12&l=ur1&category=books&banner=0FJJ5N860RNJAV2PXB02&f=ifr

Donate to LAMAR Institute using Razoo:

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Dawn of American Industry: Ebenezer Silk
February 27, 2010

Please download and enjoy our presentation, “Dawn of American Industry: Ebenezer Silk” by Daniel Elliott, President, The LAMAR Institute and Rita Elliott, Curator of Exhibits and Archaeology, Coastal Heritage Society. This keynote address was presented before the Georgia Salzburger Society at their Landing Day celebration that was held at the Jerusalem Evangelical Lutheran Church, 2966 Ebenezer Road, Rincon, Georgia, USA on March 13, 2010. Here is the link: DawnofAmericanIndustry_EbenezerSilk

Crowfield Update
December 23, 2008

Crowfield and Broomhall were two 18th century Goose Creek rice plantations in Berkeley County, South Carolina. In 1987 Garrow & Associates, Inc., under my direction, conducted archaeological survey of both plantations for Westvaco. The work was underfunded and fast paced. Concurrent work at Broomhall, directed by Steven Byrne was never fully documented. After I completed the survey report, we were contracted to prepare a National Register of Historic Places nomination for Crowfield Plantation. This document was completed and submitted to Westvaco, who promptly filed it away and it was not submitted. That ended the Garrow & associates chapter of Crowfield and Broomhall research. Major portions of these two important and unique 18th century treasures were subsequently trashed by the development project.

The mantle was taken up by several other researchers, including: Robert S. Webb Associates,  the Chicora Foundation, and Dargan Associates (landscape architects). Several more studies ensued. I summarized the work done in a short LAMAR Institute report, which is available online at the LAMAR Institute’s webpage:

http://shapiro.anthro.uga.edu/Lamar/PDFfiles/Publication%2099.pdf

The reports by Robert S. Webb Associates were produced in very limited quantity, despite their substance and signficiant findings. The Chicora reports on Crowfield and Broomhall plantations are OUT OF PRINT, except for one short study of the gardens at Crowfield, which I have uploaded here as a .pdf file and it is also available at this website:

crowfieldlandscape_chicora102

crowfieldlandscape_chicora1021

The other reports by Chicora Foundation are available through Interlibrary Loan.

Ms. Barbara Orsolits, M.H.P. , whom I met in early 2008, created this webpage about Crowfield, as part of a larger study of historical landscape archaeology in the South Carolina low country:

http://www.historiclandscape.org/Crowfield%20Overview.htm

Advances on the Internet have provided easy access to additional information on Crowfield, Broomhall, and the Goose Creek plantations. For example, Leiding’s 1921 Historic Houses of South Carolina is available from Books.google.com as a .pdf. It includes a discussion of Crowfield.

historic_houses_of_south_carolina

And this information about Crowfield is from an 1845 publication (Southern and Western Magazine and Review, by William Gilmore Simms, pages 283-284):

N. B. A few errors, attributable to hurried preparation for the press, occurred chiefly in the notes to our first number. In note on page 210, paragraph 7, line 1st., for “Isaac Marion, his brother, settled in Georgetown, at least as early as 1742,” read “Isaac Marion, the General’s eldest brother, married and settled in Georgetown, at least as early as 1742.” In note on p. 217, line 2d., for “Mrs. Sarah Cutler, of New-York,” read “Mrs. Sarah Cutler, of Massachusetts.” In note on p. 215, par. 2d. line, in relation to the present ownership of Crowfield, for “but now the property of Mrs. Middleton Smith,” read “but now the property of Henry A. Middleton, Esq ” We were led into this error by confounding Crowfield with Bloomfield, the adjoining plantation of Mrs. Middleton Smith. In line 34 of same note, for “Dr. Geddings’ map of Crowfield,” read “Dr. Geddings’ map of ‘The Elms.'” Crowfield was originally the property of the Hon. Arthui Middleton,* who conveyed it Nov., 11,1729, to Wm. Middleton, who, it is said, had a country-seat of the same name in England. During the revolutionary war, he sold it to Rawlins Lowndes, Provost Marshal under the colonial government, and President of the State of South-Carolina after the Declaration of Independence. After six years’ possession, Rawlins Lowndes, and Sarah, his wife, on the 16th March, 1784, conveyed it to John Middleton, whose heirs sold it to the present proprietor. It is said to be a place of great beauty, presenting numerous remains of the great labour and lavish expenditure of money, which the wealthy colonial planter bestowed on his villa or country-seat, when the law of primogeniture gave us a landed aristocracy and kind of hereditary nobility. It is no longer in cultivation ; but it is well worth the visit of the antiquarian, and of all who delight to recal the memories of the past,—and especially the grandeur and magnificence of colonial times. R. Y.

* We find on record an indenture of lease and release, dated November 10 and 11,,1729, between the Hon. Arthur Middleton, of Berkley county, and William Middleton, of the same county, by which deed the former conveyed to the latter two tracts of land in the Parish of St. James’, Goose Creek—the one containing one thousand four hundred and forty acres, (Crowfield,) bounded north and northwest on lands of Matthew Beard and Andrew Allen, south on lands of Benjamin Marion, west on lands of Mr. De La Plain, deceased, east and south-east on lands of Thomas Moore and Benjamin Gibbs: the other containing 103 acres in said parish, bounded north-west on land of Mr. De La Plain, deceased, northeast and south-east on land of John Gibbs, and south on land of Francis Guerrin. The Will of Arthur Middleton, of Berkley county, is dated June 7,1734, and proved Dec. 7, 1737, before William Bull, Governor. It mentions his wife Sarah, and his sons William, Henry and Thomas,—and devises, inter alia., half of his lot No. 199, in Charlestown, to his son William, to be divided lengthways, and the other half to his son Henry; and his brick tenement and part of his lot, bought from Andrew Allen, to his wife. The witnesses to the Will were Tim Mellichamp, Jane Mellichamp and Thomas Corbett.

 

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Interest in the history of the Broomhall plantation continues, as noted in a recent Charleston Post and Courier news story:

Site of former Broom Hall plantation commemorated

Staff report, Post and Courier, Charleston, S.C.
Friday, December 19, 2008
Crowfield Plantation Community Service Association manager Missey Lewis (left) stands with Goose Creek Mayor Michael Heitzler in front of the new historical marker outside the Bloomfield subdivision. 

Crowfield Plantation Community Service Association manager Missey Lewis (left) stands with Goose Creek Mayor Michael Heitzler in front of the new historical marker outside the Bloomfield subdivision.

The land that became Broom Hall was granted to Edward Middleton in 1678 and later conveyed to Benjamin and Jane Gibbs. When Benjamin died, the land was left to Jane, who later married Peter Taylor, who developed the estate until the mid-18th century. The property was later owned by the Smith family and their descendants, who rented sections to freedmen after the Civil War. The West Virginia Pulp and Paper Co. used the land to harvest pine trees in the 20th century with the property finally being developed residentially after 1980.

A historical marker noting the site of the former Broom Hall plantation was erected in Crowfield Plantation.

The marker can be seen in the small park off Westview Boulevard near the Bloomfield neighborhood.

“The Crowfield Plantation Community Service Association is proud to share in this great endeavor with (Goose Creek) Mayor (Michael) Heitzler in educating and recognizing the historical value of our great city,” association manager Missey Lewis said.

http://www.charleston.net/news/2008/dec/19/site_former_broom_hall_plantation_commem65512/

 And a 1994 article from the New York Times:

A Historical Colonial Garden Is Recovered From the Rough

On a recent misty morning here in the Carolina low country, golfers teeing off at the 14th hole of the Crowfield Golf and Country Club were mindful that their golf balls could stray into an archeological dig.http://crowfieldhoa.com/cpcsa-historical.html

A team of garden archeologists, wielding root clippers, trowels, and whisk brooms between the 14th and 17th fairways, was investigating what has come to light as the earliest picturesque, or natural, landscape garden in America. Twelve miles north of Charleston, the 23-acre garden was created at Crowfield Plantation by William Middleton in 1730. The land, including the golf course, is owned by the Westvaco Corporation, the paper packaging and chemical company.

“Crowfield is clearly the oldest ornamental landscape garden we know of in this country,” said Jonathan H. Poston of the Historic Charleston Foundation, “and though now a ruin, its above-ground features are relatively intact.”

Crowfield’s extensive ponds and canals predate by 10 years the famous green, stepped terraces and butterfly lakes of Middleton Place, the nearby garden that belonged to William Middleton’s younger brother, Henry. William Middleton eventually inherited the family’s property in England and returned there in 1754.

Thereafter, Crowfield was sold to a succession of mostly absentee landlords. Crowfield’s survival, even overgrown, was partly due in this century to its inaccessibility along back logging roads cloaked by 2,850 acres of swampy timberland that Westvaco bought in 1930.

Westvaco eventually decided to build a planned community for an estimated 15,000 people around Crowfield. For the future homeowners to qualify for Federal Housing Administration financing, Westvaco was required in 1986 by the National Historic Preservation Act to make an archaeological survey of the site.

Westvaco then proposed saving 15 acres of the historic garden as the centerpiece of the golf course. Several holes on the course, which opened in December 1990, act as a natural buffer between the community and the garden. (This arrangement may be a trend; the Desert de Reiz, a 1770’s garden outside Paris, has also been preserved within a new golf course.)

The existence of a 1730 American garden in this style shows that the wealthy English in the Charleston area were in the mainstream of the British fashion in gardens, and without the time lag usually associated with colonial culture. And the style of that day was turning toward the natural over the formal and developed into the English-style landscape. (The earliest documented formal colonial garden is at Bacon’s Castle in Virginia, dating to 1680.)

Although it is not known who designed Crowfield, English landscape designers were advertising in Charleston newspapers at that time, and colonists had access to books like Stephen Switzer’s 1718 “Ichnographia Rustica” and John James’s 1712 “Theory and Practice of Gardening.”

William Middleton was 19 years old in 1729 when his father gave him the 1,500-acre plantation that was named for Crowfield Hall, the family’s English seat in Suffolk. The Middletons, who were prominent in colonial government, were part of the Charleston community that had originally been sugar planters in Barbados in the 17th century. Born in the American colony, William cultivated the rice that was called Carolina gold because of the high rate of return that made the low country planters so wealthy.

In May 1743, on a visit to Crowfield, Eliza Lucas, a young colonist who pursued an interest in local agriculture, described the garden at its height in a letter to a London friend. She wrote of the plantings, the perspectives, and the “large fish ponds properly disposed which form a fine prospect of water from the house.” This letter, the only reliable documentation of the way the garden appeared at the time, has been crucial to the restoration project.

Massive oaks draped in Spanish moss still line the old avenue to the ruins of the plantation house. The moon pond at the entrance, 200 feet in diameter, lies just before the house. The house was abandoned in the early 1800’s, and it has succumbed over the years to fire and earthquake, as well as vandalism to its handsome Flemish-bond brick work.

Some old magnolia trees are positioned behind the house near the section of the bowling green that has survived the golf course; in all, about eight acres of the original gardens were lost to development, the archaeologists’ report said. And in the middle of the wilderness area, which may have had symmetrical plantings, a 15-foot-high hill, or viewing mount, indicates that the garden’s features like the ponds and the terraces were meant to be surveyed from above. All of these features are more visible now, after Hurricane Hugo felled many trees in September 1989.

The “fish ponds” that terminate the view are more precisely a central rectangular lake, framed on three sides by long canals. “There are few, if any other, gardens in America with authentic mounts or canals,” said Rudy J. Favretti, a consultant on historic landscapes from Storrs, Conn. It is conceivable that the ornamental lake and canals were also part of a system to irrigate the rice fields.

In particular, Crowfield’s plan, which included a Roman temple, resembles such English landscapes of the late 1720’s as the water garden at Studley Royal in Yorkshire or the bowling green and serpentine walks at Claremont in Surrey.

In the most recent stage of garden archeology, conducted in April by Michael Trinkley of the Chicora Foundation, a non-profit heritage preservation organization, Westvaco acted with the advice of its consultants, Hugh and Mary Palmer Dargen, Charleston landscape architects who specialize in historic preservation.

Although the archeologists uncovered two brick foundations of garden structures, perhaps summer houses, and such artifacts commensurate with wealth as fragments of Chinese porcelain and glass goblets, the real work, as Mr. Trinkely saw it, “was to try to determine pathways and to study soil stains and topographical features that will guide in the garden’s rehabilitation and restoration.”

During this dig, the team analyzed earth berms that elevated the garden and separated it from the cultivated fields. Team members were also able to determine areas where shallow top soil indicated grassy areas rather than deeply rooted flower beds.

Current plans call for the garden to be turned over to the homeowners’ association when the houses encircling the golf course are completed. But Charles Duell, a Middleton descendant and president of Middleton Place Foundation, said he hoped that Westvaco would “donate a conservation easement on the property” to a consortium of preservation groups. This group could then control further archeological research and restoration. So far, the site has been open only to researchers.

Although Crowfield is now only a beautiful ruin with classic water features, it is evidence of how the first settlers transported high style to the New World. “It is the Mona Lisa of early American landscapes,” Mr. Poston Said.

The New York Times, Thursday, June 23, 1994

 

Prevost and Elliott at Sheldon Church
August 24, 2008

Graffiti on Sheldon Church Wall, 1826

Sheldon Church Ruins, October 10, 2006

Graffiti on Sheldon Church Wall, 1826

October 10, 2006–Beaufort County, South Carolina

Sir Christopher Prevost and Daniel Elliott escorted their ladies to Sheldon Church on this fine day. A few images of this outing are shown below.

Lady Dolores Prevost and Sir Christopher Prevost

Lady Dolores Prevost and Sir Christopher Prevost

Pillars of Doom

Pillars of Doom

More on Kettle Creek
July 4, 2008

Archaeologists seeking to solve Kettle Creek puzzles, asking for local folks’ help

Archaeologist Dan Elliott displays some of the artifacts his teams have found at Kettle Creek during the recent dig.

A group of archaeologists and historians have spent several days recently looking for missing pieces of the Battle of Kettle Creek puzzle, and they think the public can help them with the puzzle, too.

A team of archaeologists, historians, and students braved heat, thick woods, and impassable stands of thistles to explore the land around War Hill on a four-day fieldwork session June 12-17, hoping to locate artifacts from the Revolutionary War battle and, piece by piece, expand their knowledge of the battle.

On a previous visit to War Hill, archaeologist Dan Elliott of the Lamar Institute, Inc., and his teams had used metal detectors to find bullets and other metal objects that might have been left during the 1779 battle. They found some 32 possible battle relics, including round balls of smaller caliber bullets – buck-and ball load for non-military muskets. They also found, and recycled, modern artifacts including 15 pounds of shotgun shells, .22 shells, and beer cans.

“The way those battle relics were distributed on one particular side of the hill gave us a direction to search,” Elliott said Saturday as he examined the day’s first finds. “Based on that distribution, we got access from adjacent landowners so we could come back this week and explore areas we would expect to find the Patriot positions as they attacked the Loyalists.”

They have indeed found more bullets, and a distinctive shoe buckle from that period, part of a brass bell, and other objects. But the real value of the object is in the information that it gives about how it got there. “Each object tells us a little bit of the puzzle,” said Charles B. Baxley, editor and publisher of Southern Campaigns of the Revolution. “Dan Elliott is helping geo-reference with formal archaeology the history that has been passed down.”

Geo-referencing locates exactly the fall of bullets, for example, shot and unshot, to map exactly where the militia soldiers actually were during the battle.

That data will be combined with historical research, looking in library collections, deeds and plats, veterans pension applications and muster lists to form the most accurate history of the battle possible. “We’ll gather up all that archaeology and history can tell us,” Baxley said, “and hope that we have enough to tell the story.”

And neighbors in Wilkes County who have explored the area for years can help document the battle’s history. “We know folks have been out here with metal detectors for 40 years,” Elliott said, “and we’re not looking to prosecute anybody and we sure don’t need another bullet. But what we do need is information. We’d just like to know what you found, and where you found it, best you can recall. That information is what’s important to us, and any information could really be a great deal of help.”

To share information on old Kettle Creek finds, contact the City of Washington’s Main Street Manager David Jenkins in the City Hall Annex, or call 706-678-4654.

[EDITING NOTE:  Elliott, not Elliot]

Kettle Creek: Patriots 1, Loyalists 0
July 4, 2008

Kettle Creek dig providing new insights into 1779 battle

Mark Pollard, left, and Mike Benton search last month at the 1779 battle site in Wilkes County.
Tricia Spaulding /Staff
A fragment from a Revolutionary War musket ball.
Tricia Spaulding /Staff
Items discovered during archaeological digs at Kettle Creek are tracked with GPS coordinates so that clashes can be reconstructed later.
Tricia Spaulding /Staff
The battle near the Wilkes County town of Washington pitted Loyalists against Patriots.


| | Story updated at 11:46 PM on Wednesday, July 2, 2008

WASHINGTON – An archaeological dig in Wilkes County has opened a 229-year-old window to one of the pivotal points in the early years of the American Revolutionary War – and there’s evidence that it’s not exactly the way the history books tell it.

For centuries following the Feb. 14, 1779, battle at Kettle Creek, stories passed down through the generations pitted 350 Patriots against 700 Loyalists on only 12 acres of land.

But archaeologists have found evidence that the three-hour running battle stretched over at least 500 acres of property surrounding the traditional site where a monument and cemetery now stand.

Nine men and women working with The LAMAR Institute, a Savannah-based nonprofit archaeological research organization, last month unearthed dozens of musket balls, buttons, pieces of weapons and evidence of small farmsteads during a five-day dig on the 500 acres of property.

The study, funded through a $40,000, two-year grant from the National Park Service and the city of Washington, could lead to plans for a battleground park, city officials have said.

Each discovery in last month’s dig gave researchers a look into the day when the militiamen routed twice their number in new British recruits and made Southerners think twice about staying loyal to the Crown.

“This, by all accounts, was a guerrilla war,” said Dan Elliott, LAMAR Institute president and archaeologist. “This was neighbor against neighbor.”

And neighbors were definitely part of the battle – even if they didn’t want to be involved.

Evidence of at least three farmsteads – hand-wrought nails, collapsed chimneys and horseshoes – were found during the dig about 500 feet south of the battlefield monument, along with a few musket balls.

MULTIMEDIA
SLIDESHOW: Check out an audio slideshow as Dan Elliott with the LAMAR Institute talks about the Kettle Creek dig:

View slideshow

“Right now, we’re getting a rough idea of what life was like for people when this battle was raging on around them,” Elliott said.

The Patriots lost only seven men in the Battle of Kettle Creek, but dozens were injured and taken to a location north of War Hill – the traditional battlefield site – for treatment, researchers found.

Archaeologists found evidence during the dig to back up their theory about the location of this field hospital.

At least 18 buttons, likely from clothing that was ripped off men in order to treat their wounds, were found in one concentrated area – an unlikely discovery in an area that over the years has been picked over by artifact seekers, Elliott said.

The Kettle Creek battle was a vicious fight between Loyalists recruited by Col. James Boyd in South Carolina to fight on the side of the Crown and Patriots who were not ready for Georgia to be claimed by the British.

Historical accounts of the battle say an army led by Col. Andrew Pickens, Col. John Dooly and Lt. Col. Elijah Clarke tracked Boyd on his way to Augusta as he circled around through Wilkes County to avoid a Patriot army encamped on the Savannah River.

Pickens split his men into three groups and tried to sneak up on Boyd’s recruits while they camped at Kettle Creek, but scouts saw them.

Boyd was able to muster about 100 men to meet Pickens’ 140 at the top of a steep hill. Boyd was mortally wounded, causing the new troops to panic and retreat back to the camp.

Dooly was stuck in a canebrake on one side of the camp, but Clarke charged in from the other side.

In the end, 20 Loyalists were killed and 22 taken captive. About half the rest went back to South Carolina and the other half went on to Augusta, Elliott said.

Archaeologists believe they found the location of the Loyalists’ last stand.

Southwest of the traditional battlefield, metal detectors uncovered musket balls and musket ball fragments from a secluded hill off of Salem Church Road.

The fragments likely are evidence that musket balls hit trees as the loyalists crouched behind for protection, said David Battle, assistant director of the LAMAR Institute.

Researchers hope to label the musket balls as Patriot- or Loyalist-owned by determining the caliber and amount of lead found in each bullet, Battle said.

The rough terrain obviously was no problem for the Patriots, he said.

“These were woodsmen,” Battle said. “They were good shots who were used to fighting behind stumps and trees.”

Elliott said researchers likely will release an officially report of the team’s findings later this year.

Published in the Athens Banner-Herald on 070308

North End Plantation, Ossabaw Island, GA
June 20, 2008

Joey, Dave and Dan Digging in the Tabby

Woodstorks in the Morning

The John Morrell family built a plantation on the northern end of Ossabaw Island in Georgia. Curiously enough, it was known as North End plantation. John Morrell was of Swiss ancestry and came to Georgia with his parents from Purysburg, South Carolina. That was in 1760, zoom forward to 2004. The LAMAR Institute was added to the historic preservation team to document, explore, and restore the remains of the North End Plantation. This project was funded by a “Save America’s Treasures” grant, other grants from the Robert Woodruff Foundation, my buddy the actress from Tybee Island, and others. Over the next three years a series of archaeological field visits documented aspects of this important barrier island plantation. That research was documented in two voluminous technical reports, authored by me with contributions from several others. The first of these reports is available online at the LAMAR Institute’s website in .pdf format. Visit http://lamarnistitute.org/reports.htm

The second report is not widely available yet. This particular project captured the interest of the local, state, and national media. Photo of dig at top right is by Stephen Morton, a great photographer! Photo below is credited to a famous Savannah photographer. Photo of the woodstorks is by me and taken in the morning at North End Plantation. More archaeology and history work at the North End plantation is in the works. And here are a few other links that give a different perspective:

Smithsonian Magazine, by Eric Wills

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/sea_island_strata.html

Associated Press (AP), by Russ Bynum (photos by Stephen Morton)

http://www.staugustine.com/stories/022705/nat_2915812.shtml

Preservation Online, The National Trust for Historic Preservation, by Rachel Adams (photo by Stephen Morton)

Getty Images, by Stephen Morton

http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-105296560.html

Atlanta Journal Constitution, by Stacy Shelton

http://www.ajc.com/news/content/travel/southeast/ga_stories/2006/11/26/1127meshtabby.html

Atlanta Journal Constitution, by Mike Toner

http://www.diaspora.uiuc.edu/news0906/news0906.html

Connect Savannah, by Michael Jordan (no, not the basketball player)

http://www.connectsavannah.com/gyrobase/Content?oid=oid%3A2504

The Ossabaw Oracle, by the Ossabaw Island Foundation

http://www.ossabawisland.org/oracle/Ossabaw%20Oracle%20Spring%202005.pdf

and

http://www.ossabawisland.org/oracle/Ossabaw%20Oracle%20Spring%202007.pdf

Dirt Under the Nails

Kettle Creek Battlefield
June 19, 2008

The LAMAR Institute’s archaeological team completed fieldwork of the Kettle Creek Revolutionary War battlefield this week. Now the fun part begins, washing, analyzing, mapping, etc. We found several areas related to the battle over about a 1,000 acre or more area. It was a dizzying assortment of metal detectors, GPS and GPR devices and bug spray. The ticks were only moderately bad and we only saw one copperhead and it was dead. A report is due in November. I have attached a photo of folks surveying a Revolutionary War cemetery with the GPR equipment. Shown here are project volunteers, Sheldon, Judy, and Gail. The cemetery, which was created in the 1970s, contains mostly cenotaphs and relocated grave markers but the GPR survey should indicate which markers are truly grave markers.

Go Tom Go!!!!
May 29, 2008

TOM GRESHAM RECEIVES ARCHAEOLOGY SERVICE AWARD

Thomas H. Gresham, M.A.

Thomas H. Gresham, M.A.

At this year’s spring meeting of The Society for Georgia Archaeology (SGA), Thomas H. Gresham was presented the Joseph R. Caldwell Award for outstanding service to Georgia Archaeology. The Caldwell Award recognizes those individuals dedicating a noteworthy amount of time and energy toward supporting an archaeological project; making outstanding contributions in the area of public education and Georgia archeology; and providing substantial support for SGA and its programs over time.

Mr. Gresham has been dedicated to preserving the history and prehistory of Georgia and making that information available to the public, often by donating his time and expertise, often behind the scenes, for the past thirty years. As a principal in Southeastern Archeological Services cultural resource management firm, Tom has performed archaeological investigations in an ethical and professional manner, resulting in the identification and protection of hundreds of sites in Georgia. He has also pursued research interests such as his investigation of historic rock piles and aided in interpretation of these sites. An Eagle Scout, he has volunteered with the Boy Scouts of America in investigations around Clark Hill Reservoir as well as made numerous presentations to school groups, library groups, and others to raise awareness of Georgia’s archaeological resources. He is past President of the Georgia Council of Professional Archaeologists, long time officer and board member of the LAMAR Institute and President of the Oglethorpe County Historical Society. Tom has worked for the protection of human burials and was on the committee that drafted Georgia’s burial law, OGA 36-72. In addition, as a governor-appointed member of the Georgia Council on American Indian Concerns since its inception, Tom has provided archaeological expertise in dealing with burial issues brought before the Council as well as assisted in producing information to explain the laws and landowner rights to the public and developers. He has devoted innumerable volunteer hours as an active member of SGA. He is currently serving his second term as Secretary of SGA, having served a 4-year term as board member prior to taking this office and for five years prior to that as Profile editor. During his term as board member, he was instrumental in preparation of the application for 501(c)3 status as well as providing the solution for a permanent address for the organization. As Secretary he has continued to manage the member database, coordinate new member services, and provide support for Early Georgia distribution. Notably, he was the mover and shaker behind the recent acquisition of the Athens Clarke County regional library’s retired bookmobile for refitting as SGA’s archaeology mobile, and secured the $5,000 grant from Georgia Transmission Corporation to cover the cost of getting the bus wrapped/painted!

The award, last presented in 2007 to Rita Elliott, reflects the many contributions of Joseph Ralston Caldwell, whose archaeological fieldwork in Georgia and work in the Southeastern U.S. began at the Works Progress Administration excavations near Savannah during the late Depression. He served as Professor of Anthropology at the University of Georgia from 1967 until his death in 1973. The first Caldwell Award was presented in 1990 to long-time SGA member George S. Lewis, followed by Frankie Snow in 1992, Jim Langford in 1993, David Chase in 2000, and Betsy Shirk in 2004.

Recent Finds–Jeremy Inlet, Edisto Island, S.C.
May 7, 2008

  • May 6, 2008, Rincon, Georgia, Fresh from the beach.

Archaeologists have known about the paleontological fossil site at the north end of Edisto Island at Jeremy Inlet since at least the 1960s. The Charleston Museum has fossils from this place dating back to at least the 1820s and possibly earlier. I became aware of this place in 1978 when I first vacationed at the Edisto Island State Park with my colleague Jean H. McPherson. Over the course of the next 30 years, I made numerous visits to that place and surface collected fossils. As a casual visitor, I managed to accumulate a sizable collection of fossils from this site. I have also observed other finds made by friends and acquaintances.

The fossil deposit has yielded a rich assortment of Pliocene and Pleistocene fossils. These include both land and marine creatures both big and small. The land animals include mammoth, mastadon, giant sloth, bison, horse, camel, capybara, deer, elk, large cats, various turtles, and numerous small mammals. The marine animals include whales, dolphins, manatees, many species of sharks and rays, drum fish, and numerous other species.

Jeremy Inlet also contains an impressive assortment of prehistoric pottery and a few chipped stone tools. The pottery dates to several periods from the Terminal Archaic (Stallings Series and Thoms Creek Series), Early-Middle Woodland (Deptford Series) to various complicated stamped and cord marked types (untyped but probably Middle Woodland through Late Mississippian). The stone tools that I have observed included stemmed and triangular projectile points of Late Archaic through Late Woodland age. The area on both sides of Jeremy Inlet also has a thin veneer of historic artifacts from the late 18th through late 19th centuries, including brick, ceramics, glass, nails, and other metal items, which are mostly the remains of the village of Eddington–a settlement that was destroyed by hurricanes in the 1890s.

H.S. Ladd (1939) provides an important discussion of the Edisto fossil deposits in a National Park Service publication. He provides a partial list and several black and white photographs of terrestrial species found as fossils at Edisto by CCC workers in the 1930s. He also offers some interpretations as to the source and taphonomy of this fossil bed.

A state park employee reported finding a human long bone on the beach at Edisto Island in the 1970s. The report of this find was published in a brief article in a South Carolina archaeology journal. The current whereabouts of this very important fossil find is unknown to me.

In the late 1970s Paleontologist (and sometimes archaeologist) Janet Roth excavated a small test unit in the marsh at Edisto Island for her M.S. thesis (See Roth and Laerm 1980). My friend and archaeologist Greg Paulk assisted Ms. Roth in this undertaking. Sanders (2002) contains further discussion of the finds at Edisto Island by Roth and her colleagues.

Fossil collectors have been particularly busy at Edisto over the past three decades. Many fossils have been removed from the beach by collectors (including myself) and the ultimate disposition of most of these collections is unknown. Steps need to be taken to compensate for this steady drain on the resource base. The South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology has maintained a hobby diver program for several decades and this program partially addresses this issue. Under this program divers who scour the murky bottoms of the numerous blackwater rivers and streams that drain the South Carolina coastal plain are registered with the state.

Two recent fossil finds at Jeremy Inlet warrant special mention. The first is a small fossilized (black) fragment of a rib from an unidentified large mammal, which exhibits a “bullet-shaped” drill hole in cross-section. The artifacts has two or more striations, which are oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the drill hole. These striations probably represent marks left by the drill bit as the drill was removed and the drilling residue removed and the drill bit then reinserted into the hole. This artifact was found by Dan Elliott in April, 2008. It was found on the beach surface on the south side of Scott’s Branch at Jeremy Inlet, approximately 50 meters below the high-water dune margin. Two photographs of this object are shown below (on metric graph paper).

The other important find was a section of cranium (skull cap) of what appears to be a Homo Sapien Sapien. This item has been fossilized and is light chocolate brown to medium brown in color. It contains several parallel cut marks on its surface, which may be intentional. While this skull is petrified, it is not as discolored as most of the fossil bones from Edisto Island. This artifact was found by a local resident of Edisto Island, who has been actively collecting fossils and artifacts from Jeremy Inlet for the past five years. Her collection was briefly examined by Dan Elliott in May, 2008. This collection also contains many Stallings and Thoms Creek pottery sherds, as well as later wares.

References

Ladd, 1939, Land Animals from the Sea, The Regional Review III(3): (NPS), http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/regional_review/vol3-3b.htm

Roth, Janet A., and Josh Laerm, 1980, A Late Pleistocene Vertebrate Assemblage from Edisto Island, South Carolina. Brimleyana 3:1-29.

Sanders, Albert E., 2002, Additions to the Pleistocene Mammal Faunas of South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Relevant Links:

Lennon, Gered, 1996, Living with the South Carolina Coast, Nature, pp 108-110, http://books.google.com

Paleo Direct, 2008, Land Mammal Fossils, http://www.paleodirect.com/mammalfossils.htm

Paleontological Research Institution, 2008, Beachcombing for Fossils, http://www.priweb.org/ed/earthtrips/Edisto/jeremy.html

Sport Diver Archaeology Management Program, Maritime Research Division, FAQ, S.C. I.A.A., 2008, http://www.cas.sc.edu/SCIAA/mrd/sdamp_hdl_faqs.html

The Paleobiology Database, http://paleodb.org/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?action=displayCollectionDetails&collection_no=65405

GPR at Theus Plantation–Yesterday’s News
April 8, 2008

Yesterday, I conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of a portion of the Theus plantation at Palmetto Bluff, Beaufort County, South Carolina. I was ably assisted by archaeologists Ellen Shlasko, Kris Lockyear, Katrina Epps, Heather Cline, Jessie Ann Larson, and others at Integrated Archaeological Services, Bluffton, SC. This study was also covered by the local news media (The Island Packet, see archives for 04/08/08 at islandpacket.com). The preliminary survey results look very intriguing. Stay tuned for more! Oh, and we had good press coverage, see photo below of Island Packet reporter Liz Mitchell and a typical GPRchaeologistTheus Plantation GPR Survey

Text of article from Savannah Morning News, May 30, 2008, by Doug Wyatt:

Archaeologists dig into Palmetto Bluff’s rich history
By Doug Wyatt
Created 2008-05-29 23:30

Palmetto Bluff, near Bluffton, is a swanky place. On the community’s 20,000 acres, you’ll find plenty of stunning scenery, not to mention elegant homes, a spa, tennis courts and other trappings of modern affluent living.

It’s been highly-prized land for a long time, Mary Socci reminds us.

“What’s prime real estate now was prime real estate during the Civil War,” she says. “Not to mention 4,000 years ago.”

Socci is Palmetto Bluff’s archaeologist. In 2004, Palmetto Bluff contracted with Integrated Archaeological Services to dig into the area’s rich history. The community is in its “second phase” of construction, with much of the area still undeveloped.

Working alongside a team from IAS headed by Ellen Shlasko, Socci and her staff have spent the past several years finding and recording the area’s historical and cultural sites. Federal and state laws require developers to document such sites before they build on the land.

Plantation left few clues

The search for the sites often isn’t easy. Theus Plantation, for example, was once a 1,000-acre working farm in the area. Early written records are vague, but a British sea captain owned the property in the 1730s. James T. Theus bought the property in 1830; he raised livestock and harvested corn, peas, beans and cotton on the land.

Obviously there were structures on the estate, but archaeologists haven’t been able to find them. Their only clue was a series of faint fence-post holes.

“We basically have a field that has been plowed for centuries,” Socci said. “There are all sorts of artifacts lying on top of the group, but they’re jumbled up. It’s been plowed so much we’ve lost all context for what we’re finding.”

Among the numerous artifacts that have been discovered are handmade nails, animal bones, pieces of ceramic, buttons made from bone and glass. The items were crafted over millennia; the area has been inhabited, Socci said, since at least around 2000 B.C.

Bringing in the radar

The real story of the Theus Plantation era is found a couple of feet below the field’s surface. What the archaeologists needed was a gizmo that could see through the soil and tell them what might lie underneath.

Dan Elliott, fortunately, has such a machine.

Elliott is a research archaeologist and president of the Savannah-based LAMAR institute. Since 1982, the nonprofit group has conducted archaeological research across the Southeast, embarking on such wide-ranging projects as a study of the Oconee River Valley’s aboriginal mound sites and a survey of previously unstudied colonial period settlements in Georgia and South Carolina.

Elliott owns ground-penetrating radar equipment that sends pulses underground and detects “bounce-back” signals. His GPR machine, resembling a lawnmower with a computer screen atop it, can show and record objects up to 6 feet below the surface. With the device, he can detect foundations, walls, wells and small artifacts without disturbing the soil.

One day in April, Elliott donated his time and his machine to Palmetto Bluff, helping Socci and Shlasko unearth Theus Plantation’s long-buried secrets. In a few short hours, he detected underground post holes and what might be a well. Both would indicate structures, possibly even a house, on the site.

The GPR, Elliott said, “saves a lot of time and manpower. This technology makes us smarter and more efficient, but it will never replace people digging in the dirt.”

A slow process

On a recent warm day, archaeologists JaColeman Hutto and Jessie Lerson carefully scraped away at the earth, exploring the spot where Elliott thinks he detected a well.

“It’s a slow, painstaking process,” Lerson said. “But it’s great being outside. Working inside somewhere filing and collating would be a lot worse.”

About 30 sites of possible historical and cultural importance have been found at Palmetto Bluff, Socci said. “About half of them are Native-American sites; the others are plantation sites.” Her archaeologists, she said, are “down to the last few sites” requiring excavation.

The thousands of artifacts gleaned from the sites are being stored for future study by researchers; some are already on display in the community’s museum.

Many of Palmetto Bluff’s residents, Socci said, have shown a strong interest in learning about the area’s long history.

“It’s a fascinating place,” she said.
For photographs that accompany the article visit: savannahnow.com

The Ground Truth!

The true test of GPR is excavation, and Ellen and her crew tested several GPR anomalies that I recommended for study. The results were very good, in that the GPR anomalies proved to locate cultural features. Some were a little boring maybe, but cultural features none the less.

GPR Plan map of Theus Plantation 2008

GPR Plan map of Theus Plantation 2008

Above is one of the GPR maps. Note the row of circular anomalies at about 20 m north. Below is what was located in the vicinity of one strong circular anomaly, which was located at about 20 m north and 23 m east of the 0 0 point.

A large feature located by the GPR survey and confirmed by excavation.

GPR Anomaly Verified!