Rita Elliott and Daniel Elliott are giving a presentation on the Puryburg 18th Century Redware Pottery Production Site discovery at the Decorative Arts Trust Symposium in Savannah this April. Here is the info:
Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category
Kiln Carnage at Purysburg
March 23, 2017
pXRF Workshop for Archaeologists and Others
March 6, 2017
THE LAMAR INSTITUTE
For release, Tuesday, March 7, 2017
Get the Lead Out! A Scientific Workshop
The LAMAR Institute is pleased to announce that it will host a workshop for archaeologists, museum specialists, military historians and other professionals interested in early military history. The workshop, Get the Lead Out: Elemental Analysis of 18th and Early 19th Century Ammunition in Eastern North America, will instruct participants in the use of Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF) technology in the study of musket balls. It will allow participants to use elemental analysis to improve their understanding of round (musket) balls in current research and in older museum collections. The application of this advanced technology on early ammunition is new and evolving and preliminary results reveal it to be useful in identifying unique profile characterizations. While nearly all bullets from this era contain quantities of lead, the addition of other elements such as tin, antimony, and silver, whether intentional or accidental, has been demonstrated to vary within and between archaeological sites in Georgia and South Carolina. The workshop will be structured to allow researchers to bring samples for study. Experts in the field of pXRF will assist in data collection, processing and interpretation. The results of the workshop is expected to set the baseline for future studies on this topic. The workshop is being held at the Coastal Georgia Center in Savannah, Georgia on June 29 and 30, 2017 and is open to 30 students on a first-come, first-served basis. Interested persons should contact the LAMAR Institute.
Contact: Daniel Elliott, The LAMAR Institute, P.O. Box 2992, Savannah, GA 31402
When: June 29 and 30, 2017; 9AM-5PM
Where: Room 2002, Coastal Georgia Center, 305 Fahm Street, Savannah, Georgia
Cost: $25 registration fee, checks made payable to the LAMAR Institute; Registration for the workshop closes on June 15th.
What to bring: Laptop computer, round lead ball collection (if available)
Sponsored by: The LAMAR Institute, Savannah, Georgia and funded by a Preservation Technology and Training Grant from the National Park Service, National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, Natchitoches, Louisiana.
Open to: Archaeologists, museum specialists, military historians and other interested professionals (30 students max).
Support the LAMAR Institute with your purchases
February 17, 2017
When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price to Lamar Institute, Inc.. Bookmark the link http://smile.amazon.com/ch/58-1537572
and support us every time you shop. Our research team stands ready to locate more Revolutionary War sites in interior Georgia, but an archaeologist travels on his/her stomach! Consider buying something today and route it through AmazonSmile, it really is easy with no strings attached!
Support L… See More
Support Lamar Institute, Inc. by shopping at AmazonSmile.
When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will donate to Lamar Institute, Inc.. Support us every time you shop.
LETS GO KROGERING –For Archaeology!
Are you a Kroger shopper? Do you have a Kroger card? Do you love archaeology? Why not put all these together by adding the LAMAR institute to your list of Charitable Organizations that may benefit from your grocery shopping. The money comes from Kroger, so your money is safe. Just visit:
http://kroger.com and login to your account. Then go to:
and enter LAMAR Institute or the Number 64275 to enroll in the program. I will let everyone know how this money raising effort progresses. I just registered our personal card to get it started.
Two documentary films produced by LAMAR Institute detail Revolutionary War battlefield discoveries in Georgia and South Carolina.
October 10, 2016
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:
P. O. Box 2992 Savannah, Georgia 31402
Contact: Rita Elliott, Public Outreach
706-341-7796, or email@example.com
Two documentary films produced by LAMAR Institute detail Revolutionary War battlefield discoveries in Georgia and South Carolina.
Savannah, October 10, 2016. Two documenatry films by noted Savannah filmmakers Michael Jordan and Dan Kurtz will be showcased in the 2016 Arkhaios Cultural Heritage and Archaeology Film Festival on Hilton Head Island later this month. The films, “In Search of Carr’s Fort” and “Documenting the Battle of Purysburg” were both subsidized in part by a grant from the National Park Service’s American Battlefield Protection Program and the LAMAR Institute. The first film explores the search and discovery of Captain Robert Carr’s frontier fort in Wilkes County, Georgia and the second film explores the search and discovery for the battlefield in the Patriot headquarters at Purysburg in Jasper County, South Carolina. The Arkhaios festival is a juried show that features films from all over the world. The LAMAR Institute offerings demonstrate that archaeology exists in your own back yard. For more information about the film festival, visit:
Winds and heavy rains from Hurricane Matthew buffeted our Birdhouse in Rincon, Georgia this past weekend. We had a large maple tree fall on one of our vehicles, floods in our back yard and archaeology laboratory, plus tons of sticks and leaves to clean up. Artifacts were evacuated from our lab to a safe place before the storm arrived. Sadly, several boxes of archaeology and history books and journals were flood damaged. Now comes the task of resuming normal operations, after about a one week setback. Thankfully, we are safe and our house survived without incident. Matthew was an unwelcome and untidy visitor, I would not recommend him has a boarder.
To learn more about the upcoming workshop on Metal Detecting for Archaeologists, visit this website:
Savannah Needs Archaeology!
June 19, 2016
Article from Savannah Morning News, June 18, 2016:
Petition urges protection of Savannah’s buried past
‘Archaeological ordinance’ would require builders to consider historic remnants
Within a city block-sized hole immediately north of downtown’s Drayton Tower apartment complex, excavators have been moving earth deep below the surface to make way for a new hotel. The project is just one of multiple developments underway or pending in Savannah’s Historic District, now that construction activity has picked up after the 2008 recession.
The renewed building activity has recently revived a decades-long effort to protect the city’s underground historic resources.
Archaeologist Phillip Ashlock said seeing the Drayton Street hotel development was a motivating factor behind an online petition he recently posted, which urges the city to adopt an archaeological ordinance.
The large hole in the Historic District, just west of Colonial Park Cemetery, was another reminder that Savannah has no archaeological requirements in place for city or private projects, Ashlock said.
The goal of the petition is to garner support for building requirements that would help prevent the loss of historic resources, Ashlock said, in addition to persuading the city to hire an archeologist who would coordinate preservation efforts. His aim is not to stop development, Ashlock said, but to make sure there is a review process for developers to follow to preserve and document historic sites.
“The past doesn’t belong to anybody,” he said. “We’re stewards of what came before us, and it’s our responsibility to take care of it.”
As of Friday afternoon, Ashlock’s petition on Change.org was more than halfway toward meeting his goal of 1,000 signatures.
The petition is raising awareness about the issue as the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission creates an incentive for developers to voluntarily conduct archaeological studies.
Under the policy, developers that agree to perform studies for large-scale projects would be permitted to build an additional story beyond the area’s height limits. Four percent of the project’s cost, with a cap of $500,000, would have to go toward archaeology, outreach and education.
The incentive approach is a change in direction after an attempt about four years ago to develop an archaeology ordinance failed to move forward, said Ellen Harris, MPC director of urban planning and historic preservation. Options considered at the time varied from only requiring archaeological assessments for public projects to also mandating that private developers conduct evaluations, with potential incentives to offset additional costs.
The reasoning behind the ordinance was explained in a planning commission memo that said large segments of the underrepresented community — such as slaves, women and immigrants — could be more thoroughly understood through archaeology. Also, 95 percent of the area’s past is considered prehistoric and archaeology remains the only effective means of studying the 13,000-year-old heritage, the memo stated.
Archaeology helps tell the story of the people who built the buildings, Harris said.
“That story isn’t told in the structure anymore,” she said.
That abandoned 2012 endeavor followed a previous failed attempt in the late 1980s. At that time, the planning commission approved an ordinance that would have established an archaeological review policy for city projects, in addition to prohibiting the removal of artifacts from city-owned lands.
The ordinance was never approved by the mayor and aldermen, however.
“We just haven’t had a champion at the city council level for it,” Harris said.
With a new council in place, the issue could be brought back for consideration.
Savannah Alderman Bill Durrence, who represents the downtown Historic District, said last week that he was surprised to learn the city does not have an archaeology ordinance in place. The lack of a policy was something he would look into, Durrence said.
“That’s kind of odd, considering our history,” he said.
Most people in Savannah have no idea the city does not have an archaeological ordinance, either for city or private projects, said Rita Elliott, education coordinator and research associate with the Lamar Institute archaeological nonprofit. Elliott said she has been supporting the effort to “get the ball rolling” for implementing protections for 30 years, but that the lack of community awareness to the issue has played a part in the planning commission’s failed attempts to get regulations enacted.
“I think they need public support,” she said.
The false perception that archaeology and development can’t coexist is another barrier to an ordinance, said Laura Seifert an archaeology professor at Armstrong State University. Archaeology would just be another component of the historic review process, Seifert said, and the cost and time it takes could be built in if developers know their responsibilities at the start.
“If there is good planning, it shouldn’t be a problem,” she said.
Certain projects that receive state or federal funding are required to conduct archaeological studies. That requirement was why Chatham Area Transit had to have a site evaluation performed in 2012 when it was building a transit center on Oglethorpe Avenue west of Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard.
The archaeologists for that project evaluated two brick wells found on the site, which were believed to date back to the 18th century. The excavation work uncovered artifacts from the 1700s, as well as ceramic shards dating back an estimated 1,500 years, said the project’s archaeologist, Angus Sawyer. More artifacts would likely have been discovered if it wasn’t for the damage caused to the site by the construction of a bus station there in the early 1960s, Sawyer said. Now more than 50 years later, Sawyer said, that damage continues throughout the city.
“There is a story under Savannah that is being lost piecemeal,” he said.
Digging versus archaeology
Historic artifacts are discovered regularly during construction projects. Recently, workers dug up about 50,000 19th century bricks hand-crafted by slaves, known as Savannah Greys, during the construction of a hotel on the south side of River Street at MLK.
A stoneware jug dating back to the early 19th century was also recently discovered during the construction of a ferry shelter on River Street north of City Hall.
The handle was broken off by machinery during the project, but the rest of the jug is intact and in the city’s possession after Luciana Spracher, Savannah’s library and archives director, heard about the discovery and rushed down to claim the artifact.
“I’m not sure what would have happened if I hadn’t found out about it,” Spracher said.
However, Ashlock said the discovery of an artifact is not the same as determining the historic object’s story.
“Context is very important,” he said. “Digging is different than archaeology.”
Savannah would not be the first city to adopt protections for its buried past. Other governments that have adopted archaeological ordinances include St. Augustine, Beaufort County, and Hilton Head.
Alexandria, Va. has one of the best models, Harris said.
That city’s archaeological protection code requires the evaluation of a project on a case-by-case basis. The developer is only required to hire an archaeological consultant to conduct research after it is determined there is potential for archaeological resources to be impacted.
Local architect Patrick Shay said requiring some sort of historic investigation makes sense, but that an archaeological ordinance would have to be carefully crafted so it doesn’t make it impossible for development projects to move forward.
“It can get in the way of people using their property the way they want to,” Shay said. “It depends on how it’s worded, but it’s got merit.”
Shay’s firm designed the Rockbridge Capital hotel now being built along River Street, where the Savannah Grey bricks were found. An ordinance requiring work be halted in the middle of a project when such discoveries are made could be problematic for the developer, Shay said.
“If the rules are too strict, it can make it unlikely it is reported, frankly,” he said.
Jim Schrim, senior vice-president of real estate for Rockbridge, said during the project’s recent groundbreaking that the historic bricks would be cleaned and reused at the hotel.
Shay’s firm also designed the cultural arts center the city plans to build directly west of the downtown Civic Center. The arts center site at Montgomery Street and Oglethorpe Avenue is where a three-story private residence known as the Wetter House previously stood from about the mid-19th century to 1950. Noted for the ornamental iron railings that ran along the balconies circling the first and second floors, the house was torn down to make way for a used-car dealership and auto repairs.
The city decided not to conduct any further archaeological studies for the arts center project, since a previous survey was performed about 16 years ago when the site was being considered for the CAT transit center, according to city officials. While a full-scale excavation was not performed, an examination of a limited area on the site failed to locate any significant features and further study was not recommended, according to the survey report.
While it won’t be the same as archaeology, Shay said there are plans to investigate the site when the former parking lot’s concrete surface is torn up for the project.
With construction set to begin this summer, the arts center is among the millions of dollars worth of projects expected to soon break ground. In addition, developer Richard Kessler has announced plans to begin construction next month of an estimated $250 million hotel project along West River Street.
Without an ordinance in place, the revitalized building activity can mean the death of archaeological sites, Elliott said.
“When the source is destroyed, you don’t have that history anymore,” she said.
Recent Releases by the LAMAR Institute
May 25, 2016
The LAMAR Institute (http://thelamarinstitute.org) continues to produce important historical and archaeological reports on various subjects of interest. The new additions for Spring 2016 include:
Report 172. Sherman’s March Begins: Battlefield Archaeology on Three Civil War Sites in Northwestern Georgia.
–This report by Daniel T. Elliott details the background and search for three Civil War sites in the Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest. This work was conducted as a Passport in Time project of the U.S.D.A. Forest Service, assisted by the LAMAR Institute research team.
Report 202. The Martello Tower at Tybee Island, Georgia.
–This report by Daniel T. Elliott provides historical background on a little known military feature that once stood on the north end of Georgia’s Tybee Island.
Report 208. Roland Steiner and Early Anthropology in Georgia.
–This report by Daniel T. Elliott explores the early folklore and cultural anthropology contributions of fellow Georgian Roland Steiner.
AND more are on the way!
Documenting the Battle of Purysburg–a new documentary film available free to the public.
May 10, 2016
Documenting the Battle of Purysburg Film Release by LAMAR Institute
Savannah, May 10, 2016. The LAMAR Institute has made available to the public its latest documentary film on conflict archaeology in the lower Savannah River region. This film, entitled, Documenting the Battle of Purysburg, highlights the historical archaeology search for the lost Revolutionary War battlefield at Purysburg, South Carolina. The film explores the historical search for documents and records pertaining to the battle, the archaeological field search and discovery of the battlefield, and the laboratory analysis that help to reconstruct an accurate portrayal of this little known but important Revolutionary War battle. The battle on April 29, 1779 pitted nearly 2,000 British troops, including the 71st Regiment, the Light Infantry and East Florida Ranger Indian guides, commanded by Colonel John Maitland against a few hundred Patriots from the 2nd and 5th South Carolina Continentals and the Charles Towne militia, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander McIntosh. The British soldiers, who had spend the preceding evening marching up to their necks in the Savannah River swamp, emerged from the Swamp at dawn to do battle. With their ammunition completely soaked the British resulted to a bayonet charge. Faced with overwhelming odds, the Patriots retreated and the British took the town. While the number of killed and wounded was relatively slight, this engagement helped delay the British in their surge to conquer Charleston. That attempt proved unsuccessful and the war in the south was prolonged for a year when the British finally took Charleston in May 1780. The archaeologists located the battlefield and defined several defensive works and through careful metal detector survey, Ground Penetrating Radar survey, GPS mapping and GIS manipulation were able to reconstruct the entire battlefield. This effort was funded by the American Battlefield Protection Program of the National Park Service and the LAMAR Institute. The film was created by Michael Jordan and Dan Kurtz of Cosmos Mariner Productions. Those wishing to watch and/or download it may do so by visiting the Reports section of LAMAR Institute’s website, http://thelamarinstitute.org , or by clicking https://youtu.be/b7dy5PYaANE . The release of the complete battlefield survey report by the LAMAR Institute is expected within a few months.
CSS Georgia Teacher’s Workshop 2016
April 29, 2016
From STEM to Stern: CSS Georgia Shipwreck
Dive into Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) as well as English Language Arts, and History/Social Studies in this exciting Teachers’ Institute focusing on the Civil War ironclad shipwreck sunk in 1864 in the Savannah River adjacent to Savannah and recovered in 2015 by underwater archaeologists. Use elements from the wreck, its history, and underwater archaeology to engage your students in learning state performance standards as well as Next Generation Science Standards. As a workshop attendee you will participate in a variety of hands-on activities that you can replicate in your classroom, have the opportunity to question underwater archaeologists following presentations, collect sonar data with underwater archaeologists in a boat over the wreck site, gather and interpret data, create your own lesson plans, and obtain resource materials for your classroom. The workshop is recommended for 4th-12th grade teachers and is open to a total of 20 teachers from Bryan, Chatham, Effingham, and Liberty counties, Georgia and Jasper and Beaufort counties, South Carolina. The workshop will be held May 31-June 3, 2016, with the final presentation and luncheon day on Friday, July 29, 2016. Participants will earn 4 PLUs and receive a $400 stipend. Except for the field trip, the workshop will be held at Georgia Tech Savannah, 210 Technology Circle, Savannah, Georgia 31407. The workshop is funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Savannah District as part of the public outreach for its CSS Georgia recovery related to the Savannah Harbor Expansion Project. The workshop is hosted by Georgia Tech, Center for Education Integrating Science, Mathematics and Computing (CEISMC) in partnership with the USACE. Space is limited. To register please go to: pe.gatech.edu/teacher-institute. For questions contact: Rita Elliott at firstname.lastname@example.org
Uncover the truth behind the legendary Vikings and their epic journey to the Americas.
A Chapter on Ebenezer Ceramics
March 27, 2016
Connections: Georgia in the World: The Seventh Henry D. Green Symposium of the Decorative Arts
Paperback: 224 pages
Publisher: Georgia Museum of Art; 1st edition (February 1, 2016)
This volume includes the following papers delivered at the seventh Henry D. Green Symposium of the Decorative Arts, held Jan. 30 through Feb. 1, 2014: “Revealing Georgia: Viewing the Cultural Landscape through Prints and Maps,” by Margaret Beck Pritchard; “Utilitarian Earthenware in the Ebenezer Settlement, Effingham County, Georgia,” by Daniel T. Elliott; “Worldly Goods for a Chosen People: The Material Culture of Savannah s Colonial Jewish Community,” by Daniel Kurt Ackermann; “Considerations of William Verelst s ‘The Common Council of Georgia Receiving the Indian Chiefs,’ 1734 36,” by Kathleen Staples; “Materiality in the Gullah Geechee Culture: The Kitchen in the Heart of the Story,” by Althea Sumpter; “Colonial South Carolina Indigo: Red, White, and Black Made Blue,” by Andrea Feeser; “Scarf and Dress Designs by Frankie Welch: Highlighting Georgia Through Her Americana,” by Ashley Callahan; “Georgia’s Textile Connections: Imports, Homespun and Industry,” by Madelyn Shaw; “Weaving History: The Yeoman, the Slave, the Coverlet,” by Susan Falls and Jessica R. Smith; “Capitalism and Revolution: A Staffordshire Mug and Its Anti-Monarchial Message,” by Lauren Word; “Sumptuous Goods: The McKinne-Whitehead-Rowland Collection at the Georgia Museum of Art,” by Julia N. Jackson; “Valley View: Reflecting on a Place, Its People, and Its Furnishings,” by Maryellen Higginbotham; “Mexican Silver in an Antebellum Georgia Household,” by Carolyn Shuler; “From London to Shanghai, 1780 1920: How Five Generations of Yonges and Brownes Brought Their Silver to Columbus, Georgia,” by Sandra Strother Hudson; and “Shopping from London to Naples for a Future Country Palace in Macon: William and Anne Tracy Johnston on the Grand Tour, 1851 1854,” by Jonathan H. Poston, as well as a foreword by museum director William Underwood Eiland and acknowledgments and a focus on a recent acqusition by Dale L. Couch, curator, Henry D. Green Center for the Study of the Decorative Arts. Full-color illustrations throughout.
Pardon my potty mouth but…
March 13, 2016
Archibald Campbell and the Savannah River tour
February 19, 2016
Southern Campaigns Revolutionary War Round Table and Corps of Discovery
Sponsored by SCAR and GARPA
New Ebenezer Retreat Center, Georgia
February 20-21, 2016
Schedule [as of 2-16-2016]
Saturday, February 20, 2016 – Round Table and Corps of Discovery
10:00 am to 11:50 am – indoors Roundtable presentations at the New Ebenezer Retreat Center Cafeteria. Start with Welcome and Self Introductions.
1. Kim Stacy – Facts & Myths of Light Artillery (or the Light Six pounder or Dummies)
2. Bob Davis – The Lost History of the People who lived in the Briar Creek area at the time of the Battle
3. Dan Johnson – Lachlan McIntosh’s Family in the Siege of Savannah
4. Conner Runyan – The Battle of Cedar Spring – July 12, 1780?
5. Leon Harris – The Virginia Continentals Size Rolls
11:55 am – break for lunch – New Ebenezer Retreat Center Cafeteria ($10 each) – names for lunch in the pot: Charles Baxley, David Reuwer, Steve Rauch, Greg Brooking, Mary Jane and Leon Harris, Dan Battle, Dan Elliott, Kim Stacy, Bob Davis, Conner Runyan, Dan Johnson, Rod Lenahan, Bob Thompson, Fritz and Jane Hamer, Ed & Mrs. Rigel, Sr., and John Allison – 19 SCAR thus far + 6 GARPA.
1:00 pm to 3:00 pm – walking tour of the British fortifications, earthworks, the Old Augusta Road, cemetery, extant colonial era Jerusalem Lutheran Church, and colonial history of Ebenezer, Ga. with archaeologist Dan Elliott.
– Dan Elliott on the 1779 British invasion and capture of Purysburg – British troops – 71st Rgt. and Provincial Light Infantry – embark boats at Abercorn, Ga. and made a successful April 29, 1779 attack
– Charles Baxley on British Gen. James Patterson’s 1780 march to Charleston (camped at Ebenezer on March 6-9, 1780 and marched to Two Sisters over flooded causeway)
3:00 pm – carpool to site of British Redoubt #6 at Ebenezer Creek; tour old Augusta Road segment and earthworks on private property
– Steve Rauch – site of mass drownings of Freedmen following the XIV Corps of Sherman’s Army in December 1864.
6:30 pm – Saturday Evening – gather with your friends at a local restaurant (TBA) for informal “Dutch Treat” dinner and fellowship
Sunday, February 21, 2016 – Corps of Discovery – car-pooled tour following segments of the 18th c. Savannah to Augusta Road north – the route of British Lt. Col. Archibald Campbell’s invasion of the Georgia backcountry.
9:00 am – gather at New Ebenezer Retreat Center parking lot and car pool for trip to drive extant Old Augusta Road segments north towards Briar Creek
– At Ebenezer – Steve Rauch – British Lt. Col. Archibald Campbell’s plans and preparations for the March to Augusta (who, what, when, where, how, why). Include the larger British posting of forces at the various sites around Savannah – the military securing the Savannah area. Also the order of battle of the troops he takes with him and the various units.
Stop #1 – at site of the Two Sisters Ferry
– Steve Rauch on events on Campbell’s march towards Augusta –
– David Reuwer on Ga. Gov. John Adam Treutlen – colonial Effingham militia
– Effingham County militia
– Charles Baxley on Gen. Augustine Prevost’s April 30-May 1, 1779 invasion of SC
– Charles Baxley on British Gen. James Patterson’s 1780 march to Charleston (camped on March 9, 1780 and crossed river)
Stop #2 – at site of the Tuckasee King Ferry (bathroom)
– Steve Rauch on events on Campbell’s march towards Augusta –
– Dan Elliott on Mt. Pleasant and the Yuchi Indians
– Charles Baxley on British Gen. James Patterson’s 1780 march to Charleston (American Volunteers and British Legion infantry camped on March 10-11, 1780 and crossed river)
Stop #3 – at site of Hudson’s Ferry, main British post
– Steve Rauch on events on Campbell’s march towards Augusta – January 25, 1779
– Dan Elliott on the British Post at Hudson’s Ferry – redoubt and firing trenches
– Screven County militia
– July 27, 1781 – skirmish between Americans, led by Col. Isaac Shelby vs. Georgia Loyalists
11:30 am – Sunday buffet lunch at R & Ds Restaurant on US 301 near Sylvania, Ga. “Dutch Treat”
1:00 pm – Arrive at Briar Creek battlefield for tour with archaeologist Dan Battle
Stop #4 – Briar Creek at Brannon Bridge monuments
– American picket stations
– British approach from Paris Mill (now Millhaven)
Stop #5 – Miller-Freeman (burnt) Bridge
– Site features – bridge, fortified house and redan
– Skirmishes at this bridge on January 25, 1779 and January 26, 1779
– British positions south of the creek and Campbell’s pin & flank strategy – March 3, 1779
– 2 American camps
– American battle lines
Stop #6 – Main battlefield – battle action on March 3, 1779
Stop #7 – Colonial road north towards Augusta, new cut road to Savannah River and to American Army at Mathews (Cohens) Bluff, SC
4:00 pm – tour ends
Carr’s Fort video returns!
January 1, 2016
YOU SAY YOU WANT A REVOLUTION: 18th Century Conflict Archaeology in the Savannah River Watershed of Georgia and South Carolina.–with apologies to J.L.
October 12, 2015
When: Tue., Oct. 13, 6:30 p.m.
This lecture, part of a series by the Coastal Heritage Society about the American Revolution, will examine the Battle of Savannah from an archaeological perspective.
The Savannah History Museum
303 Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd. Savannah-Downtown
AND from DoSavannah:
Dan and Rita Elliott from the LAMAR Institute will present “You Say You Want a Revolution: 18th Century Conflict Archaeology in the Savannah River Watershed of Georgia and South Carolina,” which explores the Battle of Savannah from an archaeological perspective, along with other Revolutionary War battles in the area and the archaeology, and how they are all inter-related. The lecture takes place in the theater at 7 p.m., with refreshments served at 6:30 p.m. Free and open to all. Learn more at http://www.chsgeorgia.org.
Tuesday October 13, 2015 6:30pm – 7:30pm
Savannah History Museum Auditorium (303 MLK Jr. Blvd.)
And From heyevent.com:
Revolutionary Perspectives 2015: DANIEL ELLIOTT & RITA ELLIOTT
On October 13th, DANIEL ELLIOTT & RITA ELLIOTT from the LAMAR Institute will explore the Battle of Savannah from an archaeological perspective! Lectures begin at Savannah History Museum at 7:00pm with a preceeding reception starting at 6:30pm.
YOU SAY YOU WANT A REVOLUTION: 18th Century Conflict Archaeology in the Savannah River Watershed of Georgia and South Carolina.
DANIEL ELLIOTT, M.A., R.P.A., has 38 years of experience in historical archaeology. He has served as president of the LAMAR Institute since 2000. Mr. Elliott is an expert on the archaeology and history of the Savannah River watershed having working throughout the region since 1979. His expertise in battlefield archaeology has developed since the late 1980s and he has explored battlefields and fortifications in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Puerto Rico, Saipan, South Carolina, the Virgin Islands, and Virginia. He has directed archaeological research projects on the Revolutionary War sites of Carr’s Fort, Fort Morris, Kettle Creek, New Ebenezer, and Sunbury, Georgia, and provided expertise on the study of the Battle of Brier Creek. He is currently finalizing a battlefield survey report on the Battle of Purysburg and Black Swamp, South Carolina, through a National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program grant. Mr. Elliott also directed multiple historical research projects throughout Ireland, Scotland, and England, as well as in archives and repositories throughout the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean.
RITA FOLSE ELLIOTT, M.A., R.P.A. is the Education Coordinator and a Research Associate with The LAMAR Institute. She earned an M.A. in Maritime History and Underwater Research from East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina. She is an archaeologist, exhibit designer, and former museum curator. She has 30 years of archaeological experience in 13 states, the Caribbean, three U.S. territories, and several countries. Ms. Elliott led crews in the archaeological discovery of the 1779 Savannah Battlefield. She authored over 80 monographs and articles, and served as a guest editor and reviewer. She has sat on committees for museum and archaeology organizations at the state, regional, and national level and is former Vice Chair of the Georgia National Register Review Board. Ms. Elliott was named an Honoree by the Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation/Georgia Commission on Women, and received the Joseph Caldwell Award for Georgia Archaeology, the Georgia Governor’s Award in the Humanities, and a life-time achievement award in archaeology education from the Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution.
This project is supported by the Georgia Humanities Council and the National Endowment for the Humanities and through appropriations from the Georgia General Assembly.
[Rita and I hope that you can make it to the lecture. We will post our presentation online at thelamarinstitute.org at a future date. Most of the archaeological work described in our lecture was funded by the National Park Service, American Battlefield Protection Program and Preserve America Program and the usual disclaimers apply. Thanks also our other supporters to Cypress Cultural Consultants, LLC, the City of Sylvania, the U.S. and Georgia Departments of Transportation, Coastal Heritage Society, Kettle Creek Battlefield Association, Plum Creek Foundation, The LAMAR Institute, Southeastern Archeological Services, Bruker Corporation and many private individuals for making it all possible.]
Archaeological recovery of CSS Georgia rolls along
August 17, 2015
CLICK BELOW to read Russ Bynum’s article from August 16, 2015:
Battle of Purysburg News Story
August 5, 2015
Click here to read today’s news story in the Jasper Sun Times:
LAMAR Institute Receives Award for Excellence
June 4, 2015
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:
P. O. Box 11362 Savannah, Georgia 31412
Contact: Sophia Sineath, Vice-President
912-651-2125, ext. 152 or email@example.com
Coastal Museums Association Presents Award for Excellence to LAMAR Institute
Savannah, GA – June 3rd, 2015. The Coastal Museums Association (CMA) held its second annual CMA Awards of Excellence on Wednesday, June 3rd, 2015 to recognize the exceptional educational and cultural programming delivered by local museums and cultural institutions during the 2014 calendar year. The event was held at the Coastal Georgia Botanical Gardens at the Historic Bamboo Farm.
“The Coastal Museums Association Board was overwhelmed by the quality and diversity of award applicants this year,” said Sophia Sineath, Vice President of the Coastal Museum Association. “It is exciting for us to recognize the excellent work being done by the historical and cultural institutions that make the Georgia and South Carolina Lowcountry a wonderful place to live and visit.”
The award winners by category are:
Excellence in Education & Interpretation to LAMAR Institute for archaeological excavations at the Isaiah Davenport House Museum. LAMAR Institute staff took advantage of Davenport House Museum’s need to remain open during excavations to educate the general public on archaeological methods and the importance of urban archaeology in reconstructing the past through excavation.
Excellence in Public History to Telfair Museums for “Slavery and Freedom in Savannah,” a national publication, museum exhibition, and three-day city symposium. Building on 20 years of collaborative work by museum professionals, academic historians, and historical archaeologists, “Slavery and Freedom in Savannah” invited people to see a more complete story of Savannah through the lives and histories of non-whites and non-elites.
Excellence in Outreach & Collaboration to City of Savannah, Research Library & Municipal Archives for City Hall Student Art Exhibits. Prompted by Mayor Edna Jackson’s request to bring more local art into City Hall and a desire to reach out and engage local youth, the Research Library and Municipal Archives organized art competitions for local high school and college students that resulted in three long term/permanent exhibits in City Hall.
Excellence in Exhibition to Annie Williams for the Bamboo Artifacts Collection at the Coastal Georgia Botanical Gardens at the Historic Bamboo Farm. Annie Williams worked diligently to properly identify and describe objects in the Bamboo Artifacts Collection in completion of her graduate certificate in public history from Georgia Southern University. Williams is currently developing an online exhibit to engage the public in her research and findings.
Two Individuals of Excellence awards were given for service excellence above-and-beyond to Christy Crisp at the Georgia Historical Society and Lacy Brooks at the City of Savannah, Research Library & Municipal Archives.
The Coastal Museum Association (CMA) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit membership organization founded in 1984. CMA is comprised of museums and cultural sites from Savannah and the surrounding coastal area. CMA is dedicated to serving its members by providing a forum for networking, discussing issues impacting the museum community, exchanging ideas and experiences, and facilitating professional development. CMA meets from September through June on the first Wednesdays of every month. Museums, cultural institutions, and individuals are encouraged to join our community.
Photographed from left to right: Daniel Elliott and Rita Elliott, LAMAR Institute; Christy Crisp, Georgia Historical Society; Tania Sammons, Telfair Museums; Luciana Spracher and Lacy Brooks, City of Savannah, Research Library & Municipal Archives; Annie Williams, Coastal Georgia Botanical Gardens at the Historic Bamboo Farm.
SAVANNAH, Ga. – The long-buried life of the Confederate ironclad CSS Georgia is being resurrected and will be discussed in a free lecture given by two of the lead archaeologists preserving the ship’s artifacts. Speakers will bring recently recovered artifacts to the free event June 2 at 7 p.m., at the auditorium of the Savannah History Museum, 303 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., in Savannah, Georgia.
Underwater archaeologist Stephen James, M.A., with Panamerican Consultants is a principal investigator on the project. He and underwater archaeologist Gordon Watts, Ph.D., of Tidewater Atlantic Research, co-principal investigator, will share the discoveries about the CSS Georgia in a free public presentation. Topics will include the unique ship’s construction, its funding, and life aboard the civil war gunboat. Attendees will also learn how divers are documenting and recovering the vessel, the laboratory work involved, and what happens next in this complex project.
The Savannah History Museum will be open at no charge from 6-7 p.m. and light refreshments will be served in the auditorium lobby before the lecture. The lecture is sponsored by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District and is free of charge and open to the public. The lecture and museum entry is hosted by Coastal Heritage Society.
This lecture was previously announced for an earlier date. The date of the lecture has changed.
• Deepening the Savannah River channel for the Savannah Harbor Expansion Project would damage the vessel; therefore, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is overseeing archaeological excavation of the CSS Georgia to comply with the National Historic Preservation Act.
• Divers have been excavating the 150-year-old wreck since January and are preparing in June to recover cannons and large portions of casemates.
• This lecture marks the first of eight public outreach efforts focused on the CSS Georgia.
Follow the project and discover additional outreach opportunities at http://1.usa.gov/1G6S2Hn
Click here to read a Nice Letter from the folks at the Davenport House Museum. The LAMAR Institute recently completed a historical archaeology project for the Davenport House Museum and the Historic Savannah Foundation. The results of that effort are detailed in LAMAR Institute Publication Series, Report Number 195, which is available for free download online at this link. We hope you enjoy, 195. Deep, Dirty Secrets: 2014 Archaeological Excavations at the Isaiah Davenport House, Savannah, Georgia. By Rita Folse Elliott, 2015 (29.4 MB). And, Volume 2 [includes GPR survey report and specialized analysis reports, various authors], 2015 (7.2MB).
This research effort, hopefully, will serve as a model for other house museums in Savannah. Remember Savannah has a Serious Underground!
Revolutionary War Battle of Purysburg, South Carolina Discovered!
February 20, 2015
The LAMAR Institute
For release February 20, 2015
Revolutionary War Battle of Purysburg, South Carolina Discovered!
While George Washington and the Patriots were busy in the northern colonies, the American Revolution made its way south. Archeologists with the LAMAR Institute discovered extensive evidence of the Battle of Purysburg, South Carolina. The April 29, 1779 battle occurred when British Light Infantry troops and two battalions of the 71st Scottish Highlander Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John Maitland, crossed the Savannah River from Abercorn, Georgia and invaded the colonial town of Purysburg. Thousands of additional British troops under command of Major General Augustin Prevost followed the next day. About 220 South Carolina Continental soldiers camping inside and around town manned defensive works, but were no match for the greater number of British troops. The Patriots, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Alexander McIntosh, abandoned their posts at Purysburg and, after joining with Brigadier General William Moultrie’s 1,000 militia troops from nearby Black Swamp, retreated towards Charleston.
During five weeks of extensive field work, LAMAR Institute archeologists discovered and mapped the locations of more than 100 musket balls, and several canister shot and explosive shells across the landscape indicating where fighting took place. They also discovered Patriot soldiers’ camps at Purysburg. Archaeologists documented known fortification trenches and also identified and recorded several new fortifications from the Revolutionary battle. The project is being funded by the National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program. Archaeologists are now analyzing the artifacts and map data to compile a report that will be available to the public.
This is a two-year project with various phases of research, field work, lab work, and report writing.
Purysburg, South Carolina became an important location in the American Revolution following the 1778 British shift to the southern theater of the war in Georgia and South Carolina.
Following the 1778 British taking of Savannah, Georgia, American Major General Benjamin Lincoln established the Southern army headquarters at Purysburg to hold the Savannah River as the front line.
The Patriots established its secondary headquarters at Black Swamp, about 15 miles north of Purysburg.
For the next several months, thousands of Patriot troops in the area held a stand-off with thousands of their British counterparts located across the Savannah River at New Ebenezer, Georgia.
In 1779 British Major General Augustin Prevost’s troops attacked the Patriots in a battle at Purysburg.
Prevost then marched his troops to Charleston, spurring Lincoln’s troops to change course from a march to Augusta to a march to Charleston.
The 33-year-old LAMAR Institute is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization with the mission to promote archaeological research and public education in the southeastern United States.
The LAMAR Institute and its associates have been awarded and/or involved in eight National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program grants since 2001.
For more information or to schedule an interview with archaeologists, please contact Dan Elliott at firstname.lastname@example.org or (706) 341.7796. For more information about The LAMAR Institute visit http://www.thelamarinstitute.org.
This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.
Mister Soapstone 2014 in review
January 4, 2015
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2014 annual report for this blog. Please delete so as to not clog up your inbox and hard drive! –the Management.
Here’s an excerpt:
A San Francisco cable car holds 60 people. This blog was viewed about 3,300 times in 2014. If it were a cable car, it would take about 55 trips to carry that many people.
Consumers of the World Unite and Support a Great Cause!
December 3, 2014
If you shop online at AmazonSmile, you can pick your favorite charity and Amazon will donate a portion of the purchase price to it. I chose The LAMAR Institute, Inc. –certainly a most worthy charity! So consume, consume, consume! And maybe next year we can buy some arrowheads those arms and legs that they so desperately lack!
Dynamic Duo? Smash! Bang! Pow! %#&@!
November 11, 2014
Federal Road and Lower Creek Path in Georgia
October 29, 2014
From the Georgia Trust’s website:
2015 PLACES IN PERIL: FEDERAL ROAD/LOWER CREEK TRADING PATH, LOCATED IN 13 GEORGIA COUNTIES
The Federal Road in Georgia developed from the established Lower Creek Trading Path, a trading path between Lower Creek Nation and Upper Creek Nation towns. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson and his Indian Agent to the Creeks, Benjamin Hawkins, negotiated official use of the trail as a Federal Road and it became a conduit for white settlement in southwest Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. In 1811, President Madison ordered the widening of the road into a well-marked thoroughfare capable of supporting U.S. troop movements. The completion of the road and the increase in white settlement was a major factor leading to the Creek War (1813-1814) between the Lower Creek Nation, which adopted the Euro-American agricultural lifestyle, and the Upper Creek Nation, which held to native traditions. Today, known portions of the Federal Road serve as roadbeds of several modern highways that utilize the same established route through Georgia.
In recent years, archaeologists and historians in Alabama have made a concerted effort to document and preserve the history of the Federal Road in that state. There has been no similarly well-coordinated effort in Georgia. Remaining traces of the Federal Road, particularly where it is unmapped, are susceptible to loss through development, agriculture and modern road and bridge construction. The Places in Peril program helps build greater awareness of this highly significant early transportation corridor.
Recent Activity by The LAMAR Institute, Incorporated
October 21, 2014
Past and Current Projects
Oconee Valley Project
The Oconee Valley Project was initiated by Lamar Institute associates Mark Williams and the late Gary Shapiro in the early 1980s with the intent to locate, map, and gather baseline information on all aboriginal mound sites in the Oconee River valley of central Georgia. The project was an offshoot of the University of Georgia’s Lake Oconee salvage project. The project includes archaeological field research at the Copeland site (near Greensboro, Georgia ), the King Bee site (near Eatonton, Georgia), Little River mounds (near Madison, Georgia), the Sawyer site (near Dublin, Georgia), Scull Shoals mounds (near Greensboro, Georgia), Shinholser mounds (near Milledgeville, Georgia), and Shoulderbone mounds (near Sparta, Georgia). The project efforts have since spread to incorporate adjacent watersheds (Savannah River and Ocmulgee River) and include survey, mapping, and test excavation of other aboriginal sites in northern Georgia including: Tate Mound near Elberton, Georgia; Bullard’s Landing Mounds, Browns Mount, and Lamar Mound (near Macon, Georgia); Fortson Mound (near Washington, Georgia); and Ramona’s Mound (near Abbeville, South Carolina). The project also incorporates many surface surveys, which consisted of a systematic search for all archaeological sites within vast timber clearcuts and agricultural fields. Several recent examples of the latter are available on the LAMAR Institute’s website, including reports on the Lindsey, Margaret Ann Bell and Lucky Last sites by Williams and others. Together these excavation and survey data help to reconstruct the patterns of prehistoric settlement in central Georgia on a scale never before witnessed. Most of these excavations and surveys are documented in the Lamar Institute Report Series.
Over the past decade LAMAR Institute researchers have applied battlefield archaeology research techniques to numerous battlefields in the southeastern United States. Beginning in 2001 with a study of Revolutionary War Ebenezer, Georgia, the team explored other Revolutionary War engagements in Kettle Creek, Savannah and Sunbury, Georgia. Colonial military conflict at Sansavilla Bluff was also on their plate. Next came Georgia’s Civil War battlefields at Lovejoy, Monteith Swamp, Dug Gap and Rocky Face Ridge. The team completed a study of portions of the 1814-1815 battle of New Orleans in Chalmette and Meraux, Louisiana. Most recently, the LAMAR Institute’s battlefield research team discovered the lost Revolutionary War battle of Captain Robert Carr’s Fort in Wilkes County, Georgia. Other recently completed LAMAR Institute reports that pertain to fortifications in Georgia include reports on Forts Hollingsworth, Jackson (5 Fathom Hole below Savannah) and Mathews. Reports for the other studies are presently in the LAMAR Institute online report library for free public download.
The next installment in the LAMAR Institute’s battlefield archaeology series is at Purysburg, South Carolina. Historical research for that study of a Revolutionary War headquarters complex and battlefield already is underway thanks to a large research grant from the National Park Service, American Battlefield Protection Program. Fieldwork on the battlefield is scheduled to begin on January 12, 2015. A final report should be available from the LAMAR Institute’s website by early 2016.
Lower Cherokee Towns
Salvage excavations and site stabilization at the Lower Cherokee town of Tamassee, Oconee County, South Carolina were conducted by the Lamar Institute in 1984 in conjunction with the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology (SCIAA), University of South Carolina. The published results of this work are available through the Research Manuscript Series, SCIAA, Columbia, S.C. For information about obtaining digital version sof the Tamassee report, contact Jonathan Leader (S.C. State Archaeologist) at SCIAA.
More recently, Mark Williams has conducted survey and test excavations at other Lower Cherokee towns in northeastern Georgia. These include Estatoe in Stephens County.
Lost City Survey
In 1987 the LAMAR Institute launched a research initiative, known as ” Lost City Survey” , which focused on previously unstudied colonial period settlements in Georgia and South Carolina. The centerpiece of this work is New Ebenezer, Georgia, which was a town settled by Pietist Lutherans from the Alps. Survey and Excavations of the colonial town of New Ebenezer, Effingham County, Georgia are ongoing. Survey and/or excavations have been conducted on several other colonial towns in coastal Georgia, including: Abercorn, Bethany, Mount Pleasant, Old Ebenezer, and Vernonburg . The LAMAR Institute, working in cooperation with the Diachronic Research Foundation, Inc., Columbia, S.C., surveyed the site of Jamestown, South Carolina, which was another “dead town” that was founded on the lower Santee River by French Huguenots in 1706. Most of the Lamar Institute’s “Lost City” research is documented in the Lamar Institute Report Series. Many of these towns were discussed more than a century ago in the book, Dead Towns of Georgia, by Charles C. Jones, Jr. The Lost Cities research expanded to include Sunbury in Liberty County and San Savilla in Wayne County, Georgia, which are discussed below. Sunbury is one of C.C. Jones Jr.’s “Dead Towns”, which is now showing signs of new life as a coastal development. Other lost settlements that were the subject of earlier research by LAMAR Institute include Petersburg, Georgia and New Bordeaux and Purysburg, South Carolina. As noted in the Battlefield Archaeology section above, LAMAR Institute researchers have embarked on a new study of Purysburg, which should be completed by 2016.
Plantation archaeology is an essential part of southeastern historical archaeology. Two adjacent plantations in the Goose Creek section of South Carolina serve to illustrate this aspect of archaeology. Crowfield and Broomhall were two 18th century Goose Creek rice plantations in Berkeley County, South Carolina. In 1987 Garrow & Associates, Inc.conducted archaeological survey of both plantations for Westvaco. The work was underfunded and fast paced. Concurrent work at Broomhall, directed by Steven Byrne was never fully documented. After completing the survey report, Garrow & Associates was contracted to prepare a National Register of Historic Places nomination for Crowfield Plantation. This document was completed and submitted to Westvaco, who promptly filed it away and it was not submitted. That ended the Garrow & associates chapter of Crowfield and Broomhall research. Major portions of these two important and unique 18th century treasures were subsequently trashed by the development project. The mantle was taken up by several other researchers, including: Robert S. Webb Associates, the Chicora Foundation, and Dargan Associates (landscape architects). Several more studies ensued. A summary of work done in a short LAMAR Institute report, see Crowfield and Broomhall.
The reports by Robert S. Webb Associates were produced in very limited quantity, despite their substance and signficiant findings. The Chicora reports on Crowfield and Broomhall plantations are out of print, except for one short study of the gardens at Crowfield as a .pdf file at this website: crowfieldlandscape_chicora102 The other reports by Chicora Foundation are available through Interlibrary Loan. Ms. Barbara Orsolits, M.H.P. created this webpage about Crowfield, as part of a larger study of historical landscape archaeology in the South Carolina low country: http://www.historiclandscape.org/Crowfield%20Overview.htm
Advances on the Internet have provided easy access to additional information on Crowfield, Broomhall, and the Goose Creek plantations. For example, Leiding’s 1921 Historic Houses of South Carolina is available from Books.google.com as a .pdf. It includes a discussion of Crowfield. historic_houses_of_South_Carolina
LAMAR Institute researchers cooperated with the Diachronic Research Foundation in a study of John DelaHowe’s Lethe Farm plantation in McCormick County, South Carolina. The report of that work was produced by the Diachronic Research Foundation. A discussion of the findings also is presented in Carl Steen’s chapter in the University of Alabama Press book, Another’s Country, edited by J.W. Joseph and M. Zierden.
The LAMAR Institute’s endeavors in Plantation archaeology in Georgia include studies at Glen Mary plantation in rural Hancock County, Georgia and the North End plantation and South End Plantation on Ossabaw Island, Chatham County, Georgia. Survey level data for many other Georgia plantations may be found in various LAMAR Institute reports.
Pre-Civil War Forts
Our continuing research initiative, Georgia Pre-Civil War Forts Survey, has made good progress in the past several years. The goal of the initiative is to inventory, locate, and assess military sites in Georgia built prior to 1861. The LAMAR Institute’s inventory of potential military sites in Georgia, dating prior to 1861, presently stands at 328 and growing. Can you name them all?
In 1995 the LAMAR Institute was contracted by Fort Stewart Military Reservation to conduct historical research and excavations at Fort Argyle in Bryan County, Georgia. Fort Argyle was a small colonial fort on the Ogeechee River, which lasted from 1734 to 1758.
In 2001 the LAMAR Institute delved into the Revolutionary War archaeological sites in coastal Georgia. These projects, which are part of the institute’s “Pre-Civil War Forts Initiative”, seek to identify, protect, and interpret important fort and battlefield sites in this region of Georgia. This project was boosted with the generous support of the National Park Service’s American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP). The LAMAR Institute was awarded research grants from the ABPP in 2001 to explore New Ebenezer’s role as a headquarters for the American Patriot and British armies who were engaged in the Southern campaigns in 1778 to 1783. The “Ebenezer Revolutionary War Headquarters” project identified many important fortifications, defensive trenches, campsites, graves, and other archaeological resources. Historical research was a vital component in this research effort. That work, which was conducted from January 2002 to December 2002, resulted in: detailed topographic mapping of the town and associated earthworks, ground penetrating radar survey of selected parts of town, and extensive historical research. The product is a greatly enriched understanding of Revolutionary War history in Georgia that should provide great research context for this period of Georgia history. The Ebenezer report is available online at Ebenezer Headquarters . The LAMAR Institute furthered the goals of the Forts Initiative in 2003 when they were awarded three additional research grants. These included ABPP grants for Sunbury Battlefield and the Fort Mount Venture/Sansavilla Bluff Massacre, and a small grant from the Plum Creek Foundation for Fort Mount Venture.
In February 2003, researchers with the LAMAR Institute conducted a preliminary archaeological reconnaissance of Sansavilla Bluff on the Altamaha River in Wayne County,Georgia. This property, which is currently owned by the Plum Creek Timber Company, contains a concentration of early historic and prehistoric sites that have been too long neglected. Three new archaeological sites were recorded and several previously recorded sites were revisited. The finds include the village of Williamsburg (circa 1790-1810) and the probable site of Fort Mount Venture (Mary and John Musgrove’s 1730s trading post. Fort Mount Venture was attacked, burned, and its inhabitants nearly all killed by Spanish-allied Yamassee Indians in 1742. This site, which was allegedly located in the 1960s by University of Georgia archaeologists (but not officially reported or recorded), promises to be one of the most significant sites in colonial Georgia. In March 2003 the LAMAR Institute conducted a reconnaissance survey of a 4 acre tract at Hudson’s Ferry in Screven County, Georgia. Hudson’s Ferry was a major British post in 1779 and is a place rich in history. The Sunbury report is available at Sunbury . Related information on nearby Fort Morris is also available online from the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The Sansavilla Bluff report is available at Sansavilla Bluff. The Hudson’s Ferry report is available at Hudson’s Ferry . LAMAR Institute research on the fortifications of Camden County, Georgia were fast-forwarded when a planned residential development and marina threatened the late 18th and early 19th century U.S. Army post at Point Peter. Subsequent historical and archaeological research at Point Peter was undertaken by the firm of Brockington & Associates. The LAMAR Institute’s preliminary introduction to the Camden County forts is available in the online report at Point Peter.
The recent endeavor of the LAMAR Institute’s Fort’s Initiative are the excavations at Fort Hawkins in Macon, Georgia. Fort Hawkins was a major United States Army headquarters post from 1806 to 1821. It also served as the primary “factory” in the southern Indian trade. LAMAR Institute researchers are studying the site through historical documents and excavation and a detailed summary of this active project is presented at our News page and at the website: forthawkins.org.The LAMAR Institute’s involvement at Fort Hawkins began in August, 2005 and continues to the present. In 2014, the City of Macon and the Fort Hawkins Commission unveiled its Fort Hawkins Visitor’s Center.
Most recently the LAMAR Institute conducted field research at three eighteenth century fortifications in northern Georgia. These include GPR sampling at Forts Mathews (Oconee County) and Hollingsworth (Banks County) and an in-depth battlefield survey at Captain Robert Carr’s Fort (and surrounding cultural landscape) in Wilkes County.
Skeletons in the Closet
Another research focus, the Skeletons in the Closet Initiative, also reports significant progress. The goal of this initiative is to root out the history of early Georgia archaeology and its archaeologists and introduce them to the people of the 3rd Millenium.
Mark Williams has made significant strides by creating a biographical file on Georgia archaeologists. Williams also has been ferreting out the facts on the Irene Mound excavations of the 1930s. The reanalysis of the Irene Mound collections, funded by the National Park Service and implemented by the University of Georgia’s Laboratory of Archaeology, is but one example of the LAMAR Institute’s initiative.
Since 1981 Daniel Elliott has been in dogged pursuit of one of Georgia’s first archaeologists, Roland Steiner. The initial trail led him to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. where a massive relic collection was discovered. The Smithsonian Institution’s Steiner collection once numbered more than 78,000 items. Most of it was acquired by the museum following a Resolution passed in the House of Representatives in the U.S. Congress. Although the precise number of remaining artifacts with Steiner’s provenance is unavailable, the Smithsonian’s curatorial staff estimated it to be about 35,000 items.
Following up on clues found in his Smithsonian Institution research, Dan Elliott conducted a reconnaissance inspection of the 19th century Georgian Roland A. Steiner collection at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago in April 1999 and in February 2002 he examined the files pertaining to Georgia collections at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York. The Field Museum collection contains about 2,000 artifacts from Georgia. Nearly all of these were collected by Roland Steiner. The Field Museum originally purchased more than 15,000 artifacts from his collection. Obviously the collection was greatly reduced over the century that followed.
About another 20,000 artifacts from Roland Steiner’s collection wound up at the AMNH, thanks to the generosity of George Foster Peabody. Steiner was nearing the end of his life and needed to sell the collection. Peabody, who was a native Georgian, purchased the collection for the museum. Dan Elliott, accompanied by Rita Elliott spent one week studying the Georgia collections at the AMNH through a visiting scholar grant from the museum. Like Steiner’s other collection, the AMNH collection has dwindled through the years as many items from the collection were exchanged with other museums, discarded, or otherwise deaccessioned. The AMNH collection also includes major collections by Charles C. Jones, Jr., Roland Steiner, George Foster Peabody, Robert Wauchope and others. To learn more about Roland Steiner and his exploits, click here for the first installment of the Roland Steiner Project, which includes introductory background information and transcribed correspondence and other paper documents relating to Steiner and his works.
While researching Roland Steiner’s collection at the Smithsonian Institution, Dan Elliott stumbled across a lesser known figure in Georgia Archaeology–William McGlashan. McGlashan worked as a civil engineer for the Georgia Railroad and was responsible for re-routing a section of track in the Ogeechee River watershed in the late 1830s or early 1840s. During that work, McGlashan personally collected, or had the railroad workers under his charge bring to him, curious Native American relics that were unearthed by the construction. At the time of Elliott’s “discovery” of the McGlashan horde these artifacts were being decontaminated for asbestos. It seems that many of McGlashan’s artifacts (as well as a portion of Steiner’s artifacts) had been stored in the attic of the Smithsonian “Castle”. These particular relics were not available for research at that time, although Elliott gathered some documentary background on McGlashan and his collecting activity for future reference. That material was published as a LIPS report. Physical examination of materials collected by McGlashan, which remain in curation at the Smithsonian Institution Suitland, Maryland facility, is on the LAMAR Institute’s wish list.
Another important collection in the Suitland, Maryland facility of the Smithsonian Institute is Preston Holder’s collection from his WPA Glynn County, Georgia Excavation Project. Preston Holder (born September 10, 1907 and died June 3, 1980) had a long career in anthropology as a professor at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, although his stint in Georgia archaeology was very brief and sadly under-reported. Dan Elliott also gathered documentary information about Holder’s excavations, which were contained in the Antonio Waring papers in Suitland. Elliott briefly perused the artifact drawers that contained many artifacts from Holder’s excavations at the Airport site, which at that time were still curated at the National Museum of Natural History on the Mall in Washington, DC. These items have since been transferred to the Suitland facility.
Kevin Kiernan also took notice of Preston Holder’s unreported coastal Georgia WPA archaeology project, which he summarized as a chapter entitled, “Preston Holder’s WPA Excavations in Glynn and Chatham Counties, Georgia, 1936-1938”, in a recent publication, entitled: Shovel Ready: Archaeology and Roosevelt’s New Deal for America, edited by Bernard K. Means (The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 2013). See also a short summary of Kiernan’s study on Holder in the November 2011, The SAA Archaeological Record, which is available online. Holder’s actual artifact collection from numerous sites on St. Simons Island, Sea Island and the adjacent mainland remain to be analyzed, however, and it continues to hold great secrets about the Terminal Archaic and Woodland period on Georgia’s barrier islands. The recent rattling his skeletons in Holder’s closet has attracted the attention of several scholars on coastal Georgia archaeology.
Some of the Skeletons in the Closet are literally in the closet. Mark Williams and Dan Elliott began the Bettye Broyles Repatriation Project (another chapter in the Skeletons in the Closet Initiative) in the Spring, 2000. Bettye is an archaeologist who has made many contributions to our understanding of prehistory and history in the eastern U.S. She also has excellent artistic skills and these skills were sought out by many southeastern archaeologists. Williams and Elliott drove to Bettye’s house near Chattanooga and had a nice visit before attacking a stash of cardboard boxes in her hillside garage. These boxes contained artifacts from a number of Swift Creek sites in Georgia, as well as a few stray boxes from Cahokia and elsewhere. Broyles had obtained the materials in the early 1960s and her SEAC Bulletin on Swift Creek design motifs was based on these materials. The collection includes a 1/2 pick-up truckload of sherds from famous sites such as: Fairchild’s Landing, Halloca Creek, Kolomoki, Mandeville, Milamo, and Swift Creek. Ms. Broyles gave the materials to us for safekeeping and we immediately transferred the collection to the Laboratory of Archaeology at the University of Georgia, Athens. Bags and boxes that were in tatters were transferred into new bags and carefully relabeled by Williams’ student workers. Many sherds in this collection are exquisite examples of Swift Creek art and are good candidates for a museum exhibit. Obviously, the ownership of the material is an issue that needs to be worked out. If the rightful owners of the materials request them back and can demonstrate that the material will be properly curated this time, then the LAMAR Institute most likely will be willing to repatriate them.
Ms. Broyles also graciously allowed the LAMAR Institute team to photocopy hundreds of Swift Creek design tracings that she had compiled. She intends for the original drawings to be donated to the National Anthropological Archives (NAA), American Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution in the future. The vast majority of these designs are unpublished and we look forward to reproducing them in an upcoming Swift Creek “Pattern” Book. Time did not allow us to complete the photocopying and hundreds of tracings of sherds from the Kolomoki site remain to be copied. Broyles promised to complete the job for us, but many months have passed now and we probably should make a second trip to her house soon.
Ms. Broyles also has a collection of 8-track sound recordings of nearly all Southeastern Archaeological Conference (SEAC) meetings that she attended in the early years. She plans to donate these priceless tapes to the NAA as well. Although her mind is quite clear, age is creeping up on Bettye and hopefully, she will have an opportunity to organize her papers. Since our conversations with Ms. Broyles were “off the record” she imparted many great stories about Southeastern archaeologists to the two of us, which we will treasure always. Ms. Broyles also demonstrated her tedious, time-consuming, conservative techniques for reconstructing pottery designs, which was fascinating.
[NOTE: Bettye Jeane Broyles, born on August 16, 1928, left this world on March 27, 2011.]
Among the many interesting collections from Georgia, which are housed at the curation facility in Suitland, Maryland is one from the Greenwood Mound (or Dillard Mound) in Rabun County. The Greenwood Mound is located near the headwaters of the Little Tennessee River. An obscure archaeologist named William Colburn conducted excavations at Greenwood Mound in the 1930s, which produced one short journal article describing the site. The Greenwood Mound collection at the Smithsonian was briefly reconnoitered and Elliott provides a transcription of Colburn’s field report with additional comments by Elliott regarding their excavated context in a LIPS Report.
Also, recent advances in the digital records and holdings in the Smithsonian Institution Research Information Search (SIRIS) database at the Smithsonian Institution has alerted us to many new avenues for research on Georgia’s early archaeology. Ultimately, we hope to make the Skeletons in the Closet speak. Be sure to check out the recent reprint of Clarence Bloomfield Moore’s classic volume on Georgia archaeology, which also contains a lengthy introduction by Lewis Larson, at The University of Alabama Press. Moore’s original monograph is also available in .pdf format by clicking here, and here. And more information on Georgia’s early archaeologist is available from Fernbank Museum.
Southwestern Georgia Studies
Kolomoki, located in the uplands of Early County, Georgia, is a long misunderstood Woodland mound center. Excavations in the 1960s at Kolomoki by William Sears and students with the University of Georgia, Department of Anthropology, resulted in a series of excavation reports on the site. Shortly before his death, however, Sears recognized his erroneous interpretation of the site, which he revealed in his famous American Antiquity article. Sears’ confession, plus the results of the LAMAR Institute’s 1993 Swift Creek conference and subsequent publication, set the stage for a reexamination of the Kolomoki site and its role in Woodland society. Tom Pluckhahn reports that great progress is being made at Kolomoki. Portions of Tom’s dissertation work at Kolomoki were funded by the LAMAR Institute. The Kolomoki Mound group is an extremely important archaeological site in Early County, Georgia. Pluckhahn is a Research Associate of the LAMAR Institute. One important aspect of Pluckhahn’s research was a review of previous work conducted at this important Woodland period mound complex. His fieldwork explored many new parts of the mound center and resulted in an innovative interpretation of the site. Dr. Pluckhan recently accepted a teaching position in Oklahoma, although we expect his interest in the archaeology of Georgia and the Southeast to continue to flourish. Pluckhan’s dissertation research was recently published by the University of Alabama Press. The LAMAR Institute is proud to have supported, in small part, the Kolomoki Mounds Archaeological Project.
Another research initiative, the Flint River Basin Archaeological Survey, evolved from LAMAR Institute’s archaeological survey research in southwestern Georgia for the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Historic Preservation Division. Reconnaissance level survey and relic collector interviews yielded almost 400 previously unrecorded sites in 14 counties of southwestern Georgia. Most of these were located in the Flint River watershed. The LAMAR Institute conducted an archaeological reconnaissance survey of 14 counties in southwestern Georgia, under contract with the Historic Preservation Division, Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The counties under study included Baker, Calhoun, Colquitt, Decatur, Dougherty, Early, Grady, Lee, Miller, Mitchell, Seminole, Terrell, Thomas, and Worth. The reconnaissance resulted in a substantial increase in the known universe of archaeological sites in this region of Georgia. Before the survey slightly more than 1,200 sites were recorded in these 14 counties and after the survey was done, more than 1,500 sites were added to the inventory. Also, a preliminary survey of relic collectors and their collections (relevant to these 14 counties) was completed. The Flint River Basin Archaeological Survey (FRBAS), which was launched in July 2004, expanded the study to include 42 counties in the Flint River watershed. The full report is available at FRBAS Report.
The most recent research initiative by the LAMAR Institute is the Golden Isles Initiative. This research is part of a recent “rediscovery” of the wealth of historic period archaeological sites contained on Georgia’s barrier islands. LAMAR Institute researchers teamed up with the Ossabaw Island Foundaiton and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources in a study of the North End Plantation on Ossabaw Island. This research was funded in part by a grant from the National Park Service’s “Save America’s Treasures ” program, as well as generous funds from the Robert Woodruff Foundation and other donors. Two studies were conducted at this plantation site in early 2005 and another was conducted in early 2006. The reports of the 2005-2007 research are available at North End Plantation (1) and North End Plantation (2).
LAMAR Institute researchers have also been busy at Jekyll, St. Catherines, St. Simons, Tybee Islands, and Cumberland Islands. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys, survey, test excavations, and historical research are aspects of this exciting research. At Jekyll Island, researchers assisted archaeologists with Southern Research Historic Preservation Consultants, Inc. and the Jekyll Island Authority in their study of the Captain William Horton plantation–a colonial plantation and tabby ruins.
On St. Simons Island LAMAR Institute researchers, assisted by Georgia Department of Natural Resources archaeologist Jason Burns, conducted a shovel test survey and GPR survey on property of the Coastal Georgia Historical Society near the St. Simons Lighthouse. LAMAR Institute researchers also used GPR to examine a portion of Button Gwinnett’s plantation home on St. Catherines Island. LAMAR Institute researchers excavated beneath the Assistant Keeper’s house at Tybee Lighthouse. The GPR survey report for the Horton house was produced as an appendix in Southern Research’s technical report. The Tybee report is available online as an Adobe .pdf file at Tybee Report . The reports on the work at St. Catherines Island is pending. LAMAR Institute archaeologists assisted archaeologist Carolyn Rock on the northern end of Cumberland Island in a search of the remains of colonial Fort St. Andrews. Rock had covered the area with systematic shovel tests, which had tentatively located the site. The team used GPR survey technology to map portions of the suspected fort site, which is detailed in our Fort St. Andrews GPR report. Subsequent test excavations by the National Park Service confirmed the remains of the fort and data recovery excavations to salvage threatened portions of the site were conducted in the Spring of 2009. LAMAR Institute researchers, Dan Battle, Dan Elliott and Rita Elliott served as volunteers in the 2009 project. Dan and Rita Elliott also volunteered for service at Fort St. Andrews during the NPS, SEAC’s 2014 excavation season. We look forward to NPS archaeologist Meredith Hardy’s report on these important excavations at one of colonial Georgia’s most important coastal defenses.
Hands Across the Water
And speaking of oceans, water is no barrier for archaeological knowledge as demonstrated by two LAMAR Institute projects. In September 2007 Dan Elliott and Rita Elliott conducted test excavations at the Freetown Cemetery on Grand Bahama Island. This project was divided into two phases. The primary goal was to “ground truth” the results from an earlier Ground Penetrating Radar survey of the Freetown cemetery and its surroundings that was conducted in July, 2007 by Dean Goodman and Kent Schneider. This phase consisted of creating a detailed topographic map of the site and all above-ground cultural features and excavation of nine 2 m by 1 m test units on a variety of features and non-feature areas. The second phase of the project was a brief reconnaissance of the Freetown settlement, which is an abandoned settlement located west of the cemetery. This village, which is thought to date to the 1830s and lasting into the 1960s, consists of a series of ruins and archaeological deposits now vegetated in jungle.The results of this research effort were documented in a Freetown Cemetery report.
In September, 2008 Dan Elliott and Rita Elliott taught a Ground Penetrating Radar demonstration class in Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands last week. Eighteen people attended the class, including representatives of the CNMI Historic Preservation Office, other CNMI agencies, utilities, and a private consulting firm. Special thanks to Roy Sablan, Jr. and his staff for making our stay very pleasant. Highlights included field surveys at three historic site locations on the island: a suspected Carolinian cemetery, the old Japanese Jail, and the old Japanese Hospital.
In addition, we took our GPR equipment to Kalabera Cave on Saturday (our day off!) and did a survey of two areas. We were assisted by archaeologists Marilyn Swift, Randy Harper, and Mike Fleming, all of whom (Swift and Harper Archaeological Resource Consultants) are currently involved in an Environmental Assessment of the cave and its surroundings. This represents the first research/educational effort by the LAMAR Institute in the Pacific arena.
Recent collaboration by the LAMAR Institute and the University of Tennessee-Chattanooga at the Scarlett Mound site on Ossabaw Island, Georgia is summarized in a LIPS Report. This curious earth mound is located on the northern end of this barrier island and this report details the first archaeology work done there. The study included topographic mappings, shovel testing, excavation of one test unit and GPR survey. Even after these preliminary studies, however, the site holds many mysteries.
Since its founding the LAMAR Institute has maintained a strong involvement in developing ways to mesh archaeology with K-12 education curricula. By trial and error our educational coordinators have learned that this is optimally achieved by educating teachers. The LAMAR Institute has co-sponsored teachers workshops on archaeology with the University of Georgia, Department of Anthropology; USDA Forest Service, Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest; the University of South Carolina’s Savannah River Archaeological Research Project, South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Aiken; Emory University, Decatur; and the Old Governor’s Mansion, Georgia College, Milledgeville. In recent years, these courses have been led by Rita Elliott and included lectures by numerous regional scholars, videos, hands-on activities, selected readings, and field trips to archaeological sites and an archaeological laboratory.
The LAMAR Institute has played an active role in the planning and development of Georgia Archaeology Week and Georgia Archaeology Month. For the 1996 Georgia Archaeology Week, the LAMAR Institute was a major sponsor of the event. New Ebenezer served as the focal point of the festivities, as highlighted in the poster, shown below, which was distributed to more than 2,000 schools and libraries state-wide.
Rita Folse Elliott was responsible for the development of innovative teaching materials for the 2003 Georgia Archaeology Month. A booklet for educations, authored by Ms. Elliott, was distributed along with copies of a video to schools and libraries throughout Georgia. This project was funded by the Georgia Ports Authority and the work accomplished by Ms. Elliott and others with the private firm of Southern Research Historic Preservation Consultants, Inc., Ellerslie, Georgia. The Society for Georgia Archaeology is the main sponsor Georgia Archaeology Month and Ms. Elliott has continued to develop the archaeological curriculum for Georgia Archaeology Month in the years since 2003. Since 1996, the LAMAR Institute has continued to serve as one sponsor of this event whenever funds permit.
In 2000, LAMAR Institute educators became involved in Fort Frederica National Monument’s “Colonial Classroom” education project. This unique educational program, led by Ellen Provenzano, offers 4th Graders and their teachers in the Glynn County school system an opportunity for real archaeological experience. More information on this wonderful project can be found at Colonial Classroom and at Shiner’s Trench .
Ellijay Middle School Project
At the Ellijay Middle School in Gilmer County, Georgia, excavations directed by archaeologists Rita Elliott and Dean Wood and Ellijay Middle School teachers Cindy Zager and Linda Smith revealed a multi-component aboriginal settlement on the school’s athletic field. Three seasons of excavation were conducted by the Ellijay team. The students’ archaeological field experience was preceded by weeks of classroom study. The teachers, who were recent graduates of a Michael C. Carlos Museum (Emory University)/LAMAR Institute teacher’s seminar, developed creative ways to incorporate archaeological concepts and techniques in the requisite curriculum. The students participated in excavation, artifact cleaning and preliminary sorting analysis. The first two seasons were spent in the school’s athletic field but the final season included a brief visit to a nearby aboriginal site. Reports of these excavations will be available to the public through the Lamar Institute publication series. Meanwhile check out this older paper, which highlights the Ellijay Project, as presented by Rita Elliott to the Society for Georgia Archaeology.
Material Culture Studies
LAMAR Institute researchers have a variety of interests in various material culture types. Gunflints provide one example of an artifact type that can be explored on various dimensions. More information on LAMAR Institute’s gunflint studies may be found by following this link: GUNFLINTS.
Mystery on Tybee Island
October 13, 2014
From the Savannah Morning News:
Looking for Pearls:
Spanish mariners leave mystery on Tybee
By Ben Coggins, Savannah Morning News, October 10, 2014
Do you remember the Uncle Remus story about Brer Rabbit and his misadventures with the silent Tar Baby? One after another of the aggravated Brer Rabbit’s hands and feet got hopelessly stuck until he tricked Brer Fox into getting him loose.
Since 2006, Tybee Island resident Frank Drudi has been captivated by a different sort of Tar Baby — one that is 500 years old and from Trinidad.
When Frank’s neighbor was digging a swimming pool, Frank said he could put the sand from the hole onto his empty lot. When the sand was spread, he found three heavy rough discs, clearly man-made. On the edge of each was an impressed seal that Frank recognized as a Spanish Cross.
That started the research wheels turning. What were these artifacts, dug up barely a hundred yards from the Tybee lighthouse? And what clues did the four letters S-O-C-G in the quadrants around the cross provide?
Daniel Elliott of the Lamar Institute performed an exhaustive archaeological survey of Frank’s lot, now described as the Drudi tract. He used ground-penetrating radar and systematic sampling to look at Frank’s property, but nothing else turned up.
Frank discovered that the discs were made of tar that Spanish mariners of the 16th century used to seal leaks in their ships’ hulls. Tar that came from a huge pitch lake at La Brea, Trinidad, discovered by Columbus in 1498.
From poring over history books and talking to experts on early Spanish exploration of the Southeast coast, Frank has arrived at a persuasive theory of when and how the tar objects came to Tybee.
In 1521, two navigators sailing together out of the Caribbean, under contract to different aristocrats, both claimed land surrounding Winyah Sound near Georgetown, S.C. Claiming land for the crown and the sponsor involved performing a standard ceremonial ritual and recording the event by ship’s notary.
A legal dispute followed over who had rights to explore and settle the vast coastal area. The king of Spain, Charles of Ghent, decided in favor of Luis Vasquez de Ayllon, whose captain had performed the ritual hours ahead of the other claimant.
Having the authority to explore this barely-charted coast, in 1525 Ayllon sent Pedro de Quejo to do further reconnaissance and double-check the desirability of Winyah Bay for settlement. Taking no chances on establishing claims this time, Ayllon instructed Quejo to place stone markers with the king’s name and the date.
Not a single one of those stone markers has been found. But according to Quejo’s logs, his first stop was at latitude 32.0 degrees.
Sound familiar? That’s Tybee.
This means that on May 3, 1525, the first Europeans to set foot on Georgia soil did it on Tybee sand. And the river that Quejo named the Rio de la Cruz on that date is the Savannah River.
Frank figures that, when no stones were around to erect as markers, Quejo formed markers of his own. A composite of sand, grass, and the caulking tar he had on board. And what more natural point for the claim than the location that was later chosen in Oglethorpe’s day for the lighthouse?
In July 1526, Ayllon set sail from Hispaniola with six ships and 600 settlers straight to Winyah Bay. But the mother ship foundered on a sand bar before landing. Many supplies were lost, the area was not as suitable for agriculture as described and there were too few Native Americans with whom to work and trade. So, Ayllon improvised a Plan B.
His expedition sailed south searching for a better location. On Sept. 29, 1526, they established the settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape. Somewhere along the Georgia coast, maybe on Sapelo Sound, and named perhaps for the Guale Indians of the area. Ayllon himself died of illness there. The colony lasted about six weeks before the survivors sailed home, and its site has never been found.
Maybe Frank Drudi’s markers hold a clue. Frank has looked long and hard at these tar babies, trying to coax more answers from them. But like Brer Rabbit, now he’s a bit stuck.
When he heard about the West Chatham Middle School students who were studying early Spanish missions along the Georgia coast, he decided to see if their young minds could bring new eyes and ideas to answer some of his questions. Why haven’t more of these tar objects been discovered elsewhere? What do the letters S-O-C-G mean?
Frank deputized me to carry the tar markers, almost 60 pounds each, like they were Faberge eggs, to show to the students. It was a good move.
The students and their teachers, Mrs. Jacquelin Harden and Mr. Josh Wonders, were very interested to see these old relics that are, so far, one-of-a-kind.
And they offered fresh insights. Samantha Jenkins suggested searching for references to “rough asphalt cylinders” in explorers’ narratives and that the letters may be initials for a church. Francheska Gonzalez suggested that there are more and larger markers nearby and always on the southern shores of their rivers.
Several of the students speak Spanish, so they may discover Spanish-language journals, diaries or records that refer to the markers or the voyages. Regan Gayadeen said she has family in Trinidad and would get them involved to look for similar tar objects in museums and collections around La Brea.
Diamond Folston and Sade Baker had experience making charcoal rubbings of cemetery headstones, so they took rubbings of the Spanish crosses to study more closely. Jack Steuwe commented on the markers’ plasticity, and Nicholas Bergeron on their symbolism.
Some students were intrigued whether the seals stamped in the markers were made ahead of time in Hispaniola or on board the ships as situations changed. All three of the Drudi objects have the same imprint, but in other locations might different letters be used? And maybe we should search for the wooden stampers that were carved to impress the seals — like searching for the branding iron and not the brand.
Could the markers have been moved at all by Indians? Are the letters really S-O-C-G, or are they D-O-C-G? Does C-G stand for Carlos de Gante (King Charles of Ghent) as Frank assumes or for something else? Could the G stand for Gualdape? The S for San or Santa?
Students Cameron Myers, John Winters, and John Tyner lingered to look at the markers from all sides. They pointed out the wood impressions on the undersides and holes that might have been for lifting them. They suggested X-raying the markers to see if they contained medals or coins put in by the seamen who fabricated them.
They suggested that 3-D scans be made of the markers, so that they could be 3-D printed and examined by other researchers. And they suggested that, with high definition, perhaps the wood grain and grass imprints might help tell the story.
Tybee DPW Superintendent Danny Carpenter is equally fascinated. He has found hundreds of artifacts from the Civil War, the Fort Screven era, and even from the lost Martello Tower.
He says, “These tar markers are a Tybee mystery, like the Tybee Bomb. But I think they are far more significant.”
He and Frank are hopeful that the West Chatham students make a breakthrough, crack this Da Vinci code and get the tar babies to reveal their secrets.
For more background information on Frank Drudi’s discovery, read and learn at:
127. Archaeological Reconnaissance at the Drudi Tract, Tybee Island, Chatham County, Georgia. [With Supplement: Identity of the Drudi Objects, 2009]. By Daniel T. Elliott, 2008. (2.6 MB).
Coastal Georgia in the War of 1812
October 8, 2014
Follow this link to view a pdf version of last night’s lecture graphics for my talk on “Coastal Georgia in the War of 1812”:
Words to follow someday…
Fort Hawkins Visitor’s Center, Et Cetera
October 1, 2014
Here is a link to a short film produced by the City of Macon for the GRAND OPENING of the Fort Hawkins Visitor’s Center in 2014. Goto:
See if you can find Rita in this movie. Hint: I am not sure whether or not she is in there, but look carefully!
ALSO, hence the Et Cetera in the title of this blogpost, I encourage the curious to visit the LAMAR Institute’s Reports webpage to see new additions to the online library. AND more LIPS [LAMAR Institute Publication Series] Reports are coming very soon!
Or if that address is too complicated, goto: http://thelamarinstitute.org/ and then click on Reports.
The pictures shown below are of the visitor’s center during its construction, along with the latest plan map of Fort Hawkins, which will appear in an upcoming book on Ocmulgee Archaeology by the University of Georgia Press (not sure when exactly). It is an edited volume of papers, by Daniel Bigman, PhD., and my contribution on Fort Hawkins forms one of the chapters. I hope it falls within my price range (and yours)!
Dan aka “tinky winky”
Pretty Dead Thing
September 25, 2014
SOLD- a Cool Plantation in Talbot County, Georgia
September 5, 2014
Our home in Box Springs, Talbot County, Georgia, USA, World, Solar System, Milky Way Galaxy, Universe Number 1 is now advertised for sale. If I had the money, I would certainly buy it! Check out the pictures at our real estate broker’s website: johnbunnrealty.com/featured-properties/407-richardson-road-historic-home-sale-ga/
Astute historians (and our closest friends) will recognize this as the Parker-Wall/Jenkins-Richardson-Mortgage Company-Mortgage Company-Elliott House, or “Rocquemore”. Now you can add your name to the list, or simply stick with the short name we gave it. There you can rock out and rock more or simply chill and watch the [here follows a partial list of aminules we observed while living there]:
Armadillo (9 banded)
Black Rat Snake
Canadian Goose (eh?)
Dog (Canis familiaris)
Green Tree Frog
Red Tailed Hawk
White Tailed Deer
Zinjanthropus [no not really, but I needed to end with a Z animal]
Here is a short history of the place:
The Parker-Jenkins/Wall-Richardson-Mortgage Company-Elliott House
By Daniel T. Elliott and Rita F. Elliott, 2014
It is likely that James Parker, Sr. was living on this property (land Lot 87) by 1830. Parker, a North Carolinian then living in Screven County, Georgia, followed the 1827 land rush of white settlers into the region that would be later designated as Talbot County. An ancient Indian trail (Moore’s New Road) ran several hundred yards north of the Parker home [near the modern red fire hydrant on Richardson Road]. This route was traveled by the Cusseta Creek Indians living in scattered settlements known as Upatoi Town. The eastern limits of that Native American town extended more than a mile east and five miles southeast of the Parker home. When relations between the State of Georgia and the Creek Nation soured in 1825, the Upatoi Creeks were pressured to move west to Alabama and Oklahoma.
A courthouse fire in Muscogee County destroyed records that would demonstrate how and when Parker acquired Land Lot 87, but U.S. Census records suggest that by 1835 Parker had completed his impressive Greek revival home. Pleased with his workmanship, Parker carved his initials into exterior clapboard. Those faint letters, “JA R P” are still visible on the northwestern corner of the house.
By 1850, the plantation had expanded to cover just over 300 acres, with the addition of Land Lot 86. It is likely that his son, John Lewis Parker was running the plantation by this time. There were four members of the Parker family here, as well as several boarders, a farm hand, and approximately ten African Americans who were enslaved workers.
In April 1865, a Union Cavalry Corps of 17,000 horsemen commanded by Major General James Harrison Wilson blazed a path from Selma, Alabama to Macon, Georgia. That raid left Columbus’ industry in ashes, as well as the bustling town of Geneva (several miles east of the Parker property). The route Wilson’s raiders took led them directly past the Box Springs community and the Parker plantation, which was spared the torch. The effects of the Civil War were devastating to the Parker family economically. The once enslaved labor force, including Henry Parker and his family, may have remained in the area, possibly working as farm hands for the Parker landowners. John Lewis Parker, son of landowner James and Eda Parker continued as a planter in Talbot County until his death in 1899.
Sometime after 1880, ownership of the Parker plantation passed from the Parker family to Rufus Hampton Jenkins and his wife, Martha A. Pate Jenkins Wall. Rufus died in 1898. Sometime between 1900 and 1910 Martha married John Solomon Wall. By 1928, Martha Wall had moved to Columbus, Georgia. At that time she deeded 80 acres of Land Lot 86 and all of Land Lot 87 to her son, Roy H. Jenkins.
Judge Roy Jenkins owned the property from 1928 until 1944 when it was sold to J.W. Lavender and P.W. Richardson, Jr. Mr. Phillip W. Richardson, Jr. was the postmaster at Box Springs and Juniper, Georgia. The Richardson family consisted of P.W. Jr., his wife Emma Hall Richardson and sons P.W. III, and Eugene. The Richardsons installed dropped ceilings in three rooms, and added an indoor toilet at the end of the central hall. Following her husband’s death, Emma Richardson lived in the house until her own death in 1993. The dwelling and about 10 acres surrounding it were inherited by P.W. Richardson, III. The following year, the house and four acres were sold by P.W. III to his son Terry Stuart Richardson. Terry used the dwelling as collateral in a business venture that failed forcing the Richardson’s to lose the home.
The property was repossessed in 1997 and sold at public auction to a mortgage company. The James Parker home was purchased by Daniel Thornton Elliott and Rita Folse Elliott in 1998, who are the current owners. From 1998-2004, the Elliotts made numerous improvements, striving for rehabilitation/sensitive restoration to the home. This included removing the dropped fiberboard ceilings throughout the house; removing the bathroom at the end of the hall; and upgrading the kitchen with cabinets, tile, and modern conveniences. The had a bank of closets and drawers constructed in the new downstairs bathroom/dressing room, and added more than 500 square feet of built-in bookcases in the hall and library/bedroom. Whenever possible, construction was done without damaging the historical fabric of the house, and installed around historic moldings.
The Elliotts enlisted renowned Columbus, Georgia architect Sia Etemadi who designed a second story room and bathroom, with dormer, stairs, and landings. This design again took the historic nature of the house into consideration and is not visible from the front view of the home. Master builder Michael Aderhold undertook construction of the second story, in addition to other upgrades throughout the house. The Elliotts also constructed a large deck on the rear of the house, the addition of three HVAC systems, the installation of a new steel roof and attic insulation, the additional wiring of the electrical system, and renovation of the dilapidated commissary and smokehouse into a rustic guest/bunkhouse.
In spite of the various owners and occupants of the Parker Home, it retains its breathtaking historical character and understated elegance. Hand-hewn adze marks, 24 inch wide planks, heart pine timbers, tall windows, 12 foot high ceilings and Greek Revival design elements grace this unique structure. The house and plantation are featured in two Talbot County histories by Jordan (1971) and Davidson (1983). The Parker home has been cherished by four families over the past 179 years and becomes an increasingly historical and unique property through time.
For more information on the history of the Parker plantation, check out Report Number 83 at: http://thelamarinstitute.org/Reports.htm
August 28, 2014
The LAMAR Institute has been awarded a research grant from the National Park Service’s American Battlefield Protection Program to document the Purysburg (S.C.) Revolutionary War battlefield and American headquarters complex. To learn more:
Abby Does Austin SAA 2014
April 24, 2014
Guess Who Won a 2014 Award from the Society for American Archaeology for Excellence in Public Education? Hmmmmmm???? Abby the Archaeobus!!!!! YIPPEE!!! Abby Rocks! (I have known her since she was a baby….parked in our driveway refusing to crank)
Don’t believe me? Here it is in the SAA’s own words:
“Abby the ArchaeoBus is a mobile archaeological classroom that has reached thousands of educators, students, and families since it was created in 2009 by the Society for Georgia Archaeology (SGA) and its volunteers. It is a creative and innovative means to foster public understanding of archaeology and appreciation for site stewardship. It provides flexible, informal programs for large public events and formal classroom resources emphasizing standards-based analytical skills.”
“In 2013, New South Associates staff and Georgia State Anthropology graduate students, guided by the SGA, served as ArchaeoBus educator—targeting schools, libraries, museums, and events in metropolitan Atlanta and reaching 6,000 youngsters, many in economically challenged school districts. As a “magic school bus” full of archaeology fun and knowledge; a collaborative partnership among the avocational, academic, business, and CRM communities; an opportunity for public archaeology training of college students; and in the educational experience it provides to visitors, it deserves the SAA’s Excellence in Public Archaeology award.”
I would add a few names to the list of cudos, such as Tom Gresham, James Eiseman, John Robertson, Ellen Provenzano (Mrs. P), Betsy Shirk, Catherine Long, Carolyn Rock, Lain Graham, the generous folks at Best Buy, Georgia Transmission Company and the Georgia National Fair, and, not least but most, Rita Folse Elliott (her foster mother). Way to go guys!
I left out numerous others, but hey, this is my blog!
Archaeology Job in British Columbia
April 8, 2014
Great job opportunity as a Senior Archaeologist with Golder Associates, Inc. in Burnaby, B.C. If I were a younger man… Details at:
Thesis on Brier Creek
February 11, 2014
Link to free download of an online M.A. thesis on the long term impact of the battle of Brier Creek in the American Revolution by William Henry, Georgia Southern University, 2012. GOTO:
February 9, 2014
Why are you reading my blog?
Archaeology is Happening in Georgia!
January 20, 2014
Below are links to several recent newspaper articles about archaeology projects in coastal Georgia where LAMAR Institute researchers have been active. Both of these projects, the Brier Creek Battlefield Survey and the Isaiah Davenport House Museum excavations, are ongoing. The Brier Creek project is directed by Cypress Cultural Consultants, LLC with archaeologist Daniel Battle serving as the project’s field director and Daphne Owens as Principal Investigator. The LAMAR Institute has assisted at Brier Creek with skilled labor, loan of equipment. The Davenport project is a LAMAR Institute project with Rita Elliott serving as its PI. Both projects are telling us great things about the past and we look forward to bringing more of these discoveries to the public eye.
BRIER CREEK BATTLEFIELD STORIES
Archaeologists zero in on Revolutionary War battle site in Screven County, Ga.–article by Rob Pavey, Augusta Chronicle, January 19, 2014:
History in Screven County can be Revolutionary- article by Enoch Autry, January 17, 2014, Sylvania Telephone:
ISAIAH DAVENPORT HOUSE MUSEUM ARCHAEOLOGY STORIES
Archaeology at the Davenport House, Professional excavation happens Saturday in the courtyard– article by Jessica Leigh Lebos, January 15, 2014, Connect Savannah:
Gators in Brier Creek
January 2, 2014
End of the year report on our Revolutionary War research in Georgia! The big gators were out on New Years Eve (2013) at Brier Creek. The LAMAR archaeologists are busy finding our Revolutionary War history in the ground. A recent Associated Press news story highlighted our archival research on the Revolutionary War in Georgia, which appeared in many news outlets. We are busy writing grant proposals for other revolutionary War battlefields in the Carolinas. Next week my colleague P.T. and I are giving a paper in Quebec at the Society for Historical Archaeology meeting on our 100+ horseshoes from the Carr’s Fort battlefield landscape in Wilkes County, Georgia. Busy times here in south Georgia. We look forward to writing up some of these stories for the public in 2014. Happy New Year!
MISTER SOAPSTONE-2013 BLOG in review
January 2, 2014
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.
Here’s an excerpt:
A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 5,600 times in 2013. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 5 trips to carry that many people.
Back from the UK
October 15, 2013
The LAMAR Institute’s “Reverse British Invasion” research team has returned from the United Kingdom with a wealth of historical information about Georgia and its role in the American Revolution. We are currently downloading our digital cameras, sorting our stacks of papers and generally cleaning out our suitcases. Stay tuned for additional details.
May 30, 2013
Is it black or is it white,
Is it day or is it night,
La, la, la, la, la, la, la,
Ist es tag oder zu nacht,
La, la, la, la, la, la, la,
–Copyright 1968, Lyrics by Daniel Thornton Elliott, esquire.
One of my early songs.
Carr’s Fort Story Sells Like Hotcakes!
May 5, 2013
Associated Press, May 5, 2013, by Russ Bynum–
SAVANNAH, Ga. (AP) — Less than two months after British forces captured Savannah in December 1778, patriot militiamen scored a rare Revolutionary War victory in Georgia after a short but violent gunbattle forced British loyalists to abandon a small fort built on a frontiersman’s cattle farm.
More than 234 years later, archaeologists say they’ve pinpointed the location of Carr’s Fort in northeastern Georgia after a search with metal detectors covering more than 4 square miles turned up musket balls and rifle parts as well as horse shoes and old frying pans.
The February 1779 shootout at Carr’s Fort turned back men sent to Wilkes County to recruit colonists loyal to the British army. It was also a prelude to the more prominent battle of Kettle Creek, where the same patriot fighters who attacked the fort went on to ambush and decimate an advancing British force of roughly 800 men.
The battles were a blow to British plans to make gains in Georgia, the last of the original 13 colonies, and other Southern settlements by bolstering their ranks with colonists sympathetic to the crown.
‘‘The war was going badly up north for the British, so they decided to have a southern campaign and shipped a huge amount of troops down here and started recruiting loyal followers,’’ said Dan Elliott, the Georgia-based archaeologist who found the fort with a team from the nonprofit research group, the LAMAR Institute. ‘‘Kettle Creek was probably the best victory that the Georgians ever had in the Revolutionary War. Most battles were failures like the capture of Savannah.’’
Carr’s Fort, midway between Athens and Augusta, was one of numerous small outposts on the colonial frontier built for American settlers to defend themselves against enemy soldiers and hostile Indians.
Robert Carr was a cattle farmer who settled with his wife, children and a single middle-aged female slave in Wilkes County after colonists started arriving there in 1773. Carr also served as captain of a militia company of roughly 100 men. Responsible for leading his militiamen and looking out for their families, Carr built a stockade wall to protect his farmhouse and surrounding property, which included shacks and crude shelters.
Though probably no larger in area than a tennis court, Carr’s Fort would have needed to hold 300 or more people, said Robert Scott Davis, a history professor at Wallace State Community College in Alabama who has studied and written about Wilkes County’s role in the American Revolution since the 1970s.
‘‘Most of the forts on the frontier were small community affairs,’’ Davis said. ‘‘Everybody in the militia company took refuge inside the fort when the community was in danger because either the British were coming or the Indians were coming.’’
In February 1779, about 80 British loyalists marched into Carr’s Fort and took control, presumably while Carr and other patriot militiamen were away. Patriots responded quickly by sending 200 men from Georgia and South Carolina to retake the fort. Davis said the Feb. 10 gunbattle was short, with most of the shooting likely over within 20 minutes, but it left more than a dozen fighters dead or wounded on each side. Patriots gained the upper floor of a nearby building and fired down into the fort. Innocent bystanders — women, children and old men inside the stockade walls — had to huddle under cover during the firefight.
The patriots seized their foes’ horses left saddled with supplies outside the walls, forcing the group to abandon the fort and return to the British army. Still, the outcome wasn’t exactly a decisive victory. Commanders of the patriot militiamen ordered them to break off the siege and focus on a new target: a larger fighting party of about 800 British loyalist fighters marching from the Carolinas.
Four days later, the patriots ambushed the approaching group at nearby Kettle Creek in an attack that brought heavy casualties to both sides and left the British sympathizers with fewer than 300 men.
Unlike many of the larger battles of the American Revolution, the fighting at Carr’s Fort was a skirmish between neighbors — possibly even family members — who found themselves on opposing sides of the war. And the fighting often had little to do with whether the American colonists should have freedom from British rule, said David Crass, director of Georgia’s state Historic Preservation Division.
‘‘Here, the clashes were often small in scale and often were as much about settling scores between families or ethnic groups as they were about independence,’’ Crass said. ‘‘Carr’s Fort is a good representative of one of these smaller battles where many of the combatants likely knew each other.’’
Surviving records from the Revolution gave general landmarks but no precise location for Carr’s Fort. Elliott last year won a $68,500 grant from the National Park Service’s American Battlefields Protection Program to attempt to find the fort’s remains.
Elliott set out with a six-person team in January scouring an area of more than 4 square miles, which was believed most likely to have included Carr’s land. The search turned up no signs of the battle until a month later, when Elliott’s team started finding musket balls on a remote plot of planted pine. A dozen of the old bullets were recovered, as well as parts of 18th century hunting rifles favored by militiamen. Other artifacts uncovered within a few inches of the surface included buttons, horseshoes, door hinges and wagon parts. A colonial coin believed to a King George half-penny from the 1770s also was discovered.
Elliott said his team returned in March and April to make sure of their findings before announcing them last week. Though he’s still searching for any remaining signs of the fort’s stockade walls, he said the battle site was essentially pinpointed through the process of elimination. No other remnants of fighting were found in the surrounding 2,700 acres.
The artifacts from Carr’s fort are being cleaned and eventually will be turned over to the University of Georgia, Elliott said.
Meanwhile, one big question remains: Where was Capt. Robert Carr during the fighting at the fort that bears his name?
Davis said Carr’s name appears on a muster roll from January 1779, a month before the battle. The next time Carr’s name next turned up weeks after the fort shootout, when his family reported that Carr was killed in a raid by Creek Indians. But there’s no mention of Carr in the writings of men who fought at the fort.
‘‘They talk about Carr’s Fort, but nobody said, ‘I was serving under Capt. Carr.’ There’s just not one word,’’ Davis said. ‘‘That is the greatest single mystery in all of this.’’
Wilkes County, Georgia – Archaeologists with the LAMAR Institute discovered the location of Carr’s Fort, a significant frontier fortification that was attacked on February 10, 1779. The discovery was funded through grants from the National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program, Kettle Creek Battlefield Association, and The LAMAR Institute. The month-long search by a team of six researchers encompassed more than 2,700 wooded acres of the Beaverdam Creek watershed. Battlefield archaeology at Carr’s Fort yielded about a dozen fired musket balls, several musket parts and several hundred iron and brass items from the 18th century.
Robert Carr was a Captain in the Georgia Patriot militia and by 1778 his frontier home became a fort for more than 100 soldiers. In late 1778, the British launched a campaign to reclaim the southern colonies, which included a major recruitment effort among the frontier settlers. On February 10, Carr’s Fort was occupied by 80 Loyalists (Tories) led by captains John Hamilton and Dougald Campbell. Almost immediately, 200 Georgia and South Carolina Patriot militia, who had been hot on the trail of the Loyalists, laid siege to the fort in an attempt to take it back. An intense fire fight raged for several hours, in which more than a dozen were killed or wounded on each side. Patriot forces, commanded by Colonel Andrew Pickens, were ordered to break off the siege after he received word of that larger party of 750 Loyalists advancing from the Carolinas. The Patriots rode off taking the Loyalist’s horses and baggage with them. The Loyalists marched several hundred miles back south to rejoin the main British invasion force. Several weeks later, Captain Carr was killed at his home by a raiding party of Loyalist Creek Indians, while his wife and children escaped.
“The search for Carr’s Fort was like looking for a needle in a haystack, only harder. We had no map and few descriptions of the fort, so its location was entirely unknown. Historians and land surveyors provided some clues to about a dozen potential target areas, which helped narrow the search. The LAMAR field team discovered Carr’s Fort on the last hour of the last day of the field project. Although our funds were depleted, I had no trouble convincing my crew to return with me to volunteer with me for another day or two to better establish the identity of the archaeological finds as Carr’s Fort”, stated Daniel Elliott, President of the LAMAR Institute. The archaeological team used metal detectors to systematically comb the woods for any evidence of the fort and battlefield. Each find was labeled and carefully plotted using GPS technology. More than a dozen 18th century settlements were located, but none of these proved to be the fort.
Wilkes County was a hot-bed of revolutionary fervor during the American Revolution. The discovery of the archaeological remains of Carr’s Fort indicates great potential that remnants of more than 30 other forts in Wilkes County may still exist. The identification of such resources can provide important new information on Georgia’s role in the American Revolution and how this international conflict affected remote frontier settlements.
Researching, locating, identifying, and interpreting fortifications and battlefields is one of The LAMAR Institute’s research focuses. This includes the Colonial, Revolutionary War, War of 1812, and the Civil War periods. Prior investigation of Revolutionary War sites has included the battle fields of Kettle Creek, New Ebenezer, Sansavilla Bluff, Savannah, and Sunbury. A complete report on the Carr’s Fort Battlefield project will be available to the public in early 2014.
Supplemental: And I forgot to note, thus far we have seen zero evidence for cannibalism at the site. Metadata: cannibalism
Hear Yee! Hear Yee!
Being known hereafter to the world of civilized persons that upon this day, Anno Dominoz 17 April 2000 and 13, that Daniel Thornton Elliott, Esquire has created and assigned ownership to himself and his adoring wifeling, Rita Folse Elliott, forever or until A.D. 2085, whichever comes first, of the fascinating new carbonated beverage concept to be known by the name of– Curry-Cola
Sworn this day upon a stack of archaeology reports,
Daniel Thornton Elliott, Esquire.
Salzburger Farmsteads on the Ebenezer Mill District
March 25, 2013
I uploaded a rare document, in which I contributed several major sections. This is the Phase II archaeological testing of sites located on the Mill Creek bluff in Effingham County, Georgia. These are mostly 18th century Salzburger farmstead sites, although some later sites are also discussed. Follow this Link to the report:
Archaeological Testing of the Fort Howard Tract Effingham County, Georgia, compiled by Marvin T. Smith.
Abercorn Archaeology Site 9CH1205 -click below for flyer
March 9, 2013
Rita Elliott is giving free tours at this interesting archaeological site near Savannah, Georgia.
Chieftains Museum Redacted
March 7, 2013
And Hey, Why not check out this cheezy abstract? Written by the jerks that produced this redacted report:
“ABSTRACT: Chieftains Museum/ Major Ridge Home, Historic Preservation Report, Historic Structure Report and Cultural Landscape Report
For the purposes of developing this combined Historic Structure and Cultural Landscape Report, the National Park Service, in conjunction with Chieftains Museum, determined additional historical research was needed to find information relevant understanding and interpreting to the building and landscape history. NPS and Chieftains agreed that historical research should be undertaken at the thorough level as defined in NPS’ Cultural Resource Management Guideline (1995:18). In the Spring of 2004, Chieftains Museum entered into contract with Southern Research Historic Preservation Consultants, Inc. to undertake the historical research for this project. Based on a research plan approved by Chieftains Museum and NPS, Southern Research prepared successive drafts of a document presenting the results of their research effort. Southern Research consulted many sources and the results are presented in an edited form in the second and third sections of this report. In general, the results of the research were less than what was hoped for and additional research would likely further benefit the overall understanding and interpretation of the history and current state of the Chieftains property.”
So, it was good enough to lift it wholesale and stick it in sections 2 and 3 of this report, I’ll take that as a positive review!–the lead ghost writer for Chapters 2 and 3.
Data Recovery in Queensborough Township at Hannah’s Quarter
February 25, 2013
Life in the Queensborough Township: Data Recovery at Hannah’s Quarter (9Jf195), Jefferson County, Georgia. Report prepared by Southern Research Historic Preservation Consultants, Inc., Ellerslie, Georgia.
Rare ship found at Cumberland Island beach
January 19, 2013
Archaeologists Search for Carr’s Fort
January 7, 2013
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:
CONTACT: Daniel T. Elliott, The LAMAR Institute, Inc., P.O. Box 2992, Savannah, GA 31402
(706) 341-7796, email@example.com
Archaeologists Search for Carr’s Fort
(January 7, 2013, Savannah, Georgia)
A team of archaeologists and historians from the LAMAR Institute have launched a search for an elusive Revolutionary War battlefield site in the hills of northeastern Georgia. The battle took place on February 10, 1779, when Captain Robert Carr’s Fort was invaded by a group of about 70 loyalist recruits led by Colonel Jonathan Hamilton. Later that day, the fort was surrounded by Georgia and South Carolina militia, led by Colonel Andrew Pickens, who laid siege to the fortified loyalists. The siege of the fort lasted only a few hours before Pickens received word of a much larger party of Loyalist recruits who were advancing from South Carolina and he broke off the siege of Carr’s Fort to pursue a bigger target. Thus began a chain of military events that culminated in the decisive Patriot victory at Kettle Creek, only a few miles from Carr’s Fort. Several weeks later, Captain Carr was killed by a war party of loyalist Creek Indians, who burned down the fort.The institute received grant funds for the project from the National Park Service, American Battlefield Protection Program and the Kettle Creek Battlefield Association. The goal is to locate Captain Carr’s Georgia militia fort and delineate the battle that surrounded it. Today the area is a serene mixture of woodlands, pasture and scattered farms. The battlefield search is akin to looking for a needle in a haystack, as no contemporary maps showing its location, nor any detailed written descriptions of the location of Carr’s Fort are known to exist. It could be anywhere in the Beaverdam Creek watershed of Wilkes County, Georgia, although historian Robert Scott Davis, Jr. has narrowed the potential search area considerably. A team of six archaeologists from the institute will comb more than 5,000 acres in Wilkes County with metal detectors as part of the search. Once potential targets have been located, the team will use other methods, including ground penetrating radar (GPR), traditional excavations and mapping to better define the battlefield site. Fieldwork begins in late January and last for about three weeks. Carr’s Fort was one of more than 30 similar militia forts that dotted the Wilkes County frontier during the American Revolution. The project’s leader, Daniel Elliott, notes that although the team may be unable to find its intended target, they have “several chances to win”, as two other forts and numerous Revolutionary War-era farmsteads lie within the team’s search area. Locating Carr’s Fort will be a major find, as none of the 30 forts in Wilkes County have been discovered archaeologically. A full report on the undertaking will be available to the public in 2014.
James Wettstaed Says:
December 21, 2012
As you may be aware, the H2 Channel (History 2) is running a program tonight on the Mayans in Georgia claim that appeared last year. If you hear things about these claims please feel free to direct inquiries to the Forest Service or to our web site where we specifically address these: http://www.fs.usda.gov/conf
. We are trying to aggressively counter these claims so please feel free to share this information widely. An important part of this message is that the Muscogee Creek categorically deny all claims or affiliation. You can see a video on the web site where there claims are addressed by the Forest Service, Muscogee Creek Nation, and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. I want to get this message out to the archaeological community.
James R. Wettstaed
Forest Archaeologist/Tribal Liaison
Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forests
1755 Cleveland Highway, Gainesville, GA 30501
office phone 770-297-3026
cell phone 706-296-2141
HAPPY END OF THE WORLD EVERYBODY!!
Great New Book Out! particularly Chapter 11.
November 1, 2012
Rita Ann Veronica Folse Elliott, M.A., R.P.A., G.C.P.A. has yet another publication under her garter. It is an edited volume by Todd Andrlik, entitled “Reporting the Revolutionary War: Before It was History It was News”. On sale now at Amazon.com and other fine book vendors. Follow this link:
The LAMAR Institute Inc. (Georgia) $68,527
During the American Revolution, Georgia was the scene of vicious fighting between Loyalist and
Patriot forces. One such engagement was the little known siege of Carr’s Fort which began February
11, 1779. The LAMAR Institute intends to locate Carr’s Fort archeologically and delineate the
battlefield boundaries around it. It is hoped that by identifying this site they will be able to shed some
light on this turbulent time.
Front Page News of The News-Reporter (Washington, Georgia) for August 23, 2012, written by the editor of the newspaper:
Wilkes County’s ‘pristine’ Kettle Creek site gets state, federal grant money to develop
Calling the Wilkes County battle site at Kettle Creek “the most pristine Revolutionary War site left in the United States,” a new advisory committee met recently to kick off a study to formulate a land use plan for the site.
Led by the Community Affairs Department of the Central Savannah River Area Regional Commission and funded by a state grant, the plan will provide a working foundation for economic use and development, said committee member Tom Owen. “In addition to Kettle Creek, Wilkes County has a watershed of Revolutionary and Colonial assets. Directly associated with the Kettle Creek battle was the siege at Carr’s Fort. In July 2012, the Lamar Institute was awarded a federal grant for the archeological study of this Wilkes County Revolutionary War asset, which in the long term will bind the two locations.”
The Kettle Creek project has been the primary objective of the Kettle Creek Battlefield Association (KCBA), which is working towards the preservation and educational development of the historic site. “The battlefield area is recognized as perhaps the most pristine Revolutionary War site left in the United States,” Owen said, “and as a strategic untapped economic asset for Washington-Wilkes and Georgia.”
Project lead from the CSRA Regional Commission’s Planning Department will be Christian Lentz with Jason Hardin as research and plan developer, along with Anne Floyd, Director of Local Government Services at CSRA RDC. The Kettle Creek Advisory Committee will hold additional meetings in 2012 on October 16 and December 11, as well as a final meeting on February 13, 2013.
Owen said that a public meeting and open house is being planned for a date yet to be determined. The Kettle Creek Battlefield Association has provided the primary leadership toward driving this project and for the preservation efforts. The KCBA membership has been joined by the state organizations of the Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution from Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, and South Carolina, as well as members in 15 states as far away as the West coast, he said.
In addition to the CSRA personnel, the committee members in attendance included Joseph Harris, KCBA; Thomas Owen, KCBA; Betty Slaton, KCBA; David Tyler, Wilkes County administrator; Jim Rundorff, Plum Creek Forestry director; Walker Chewning, KCBA; David Jenkins, City of Washington economic development director; Jenny Clarke, executive director, Washington-Wilkes Chamber of Commerce; Stephanie Macchia, Washington Historical Museum director; Emory Burton, KCBA, and Steven Rauch, U.S. Army command historian, Fort Gordon.
War of 1812 Marker Dedication at Fort Hawkins
June 15, 2012
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Amazing American History Revealed At Fort Hawkins
Two hundred years ago, on June 18, the United States declared war on Great Britain for many of the same grievances that led to the American Revolution and the founding of our country. This June 18, 2012 at 10:30 a.m. some amazing and nearly forgotten American history will be literally revealed at historic Fort Hawkins off Emery Highway in Macon, GA. The Fort Hawkins Commission and the Major Philip Cook Chapter of the United States Daughters of the War of 1812 will dedicate a new “War of 1812 Bicentennial Celebration” historic marker that reveals the major importance of Fort Hawkins during our “Second War of Independence” as both Georgia Militia Headquarters and
U.S. Army Headquarters for the Southeastern United States. That double significance will be explained and attested during the marker’s unveiling and dedication ceremony which will include uniformed American soldiers from our past and present, members of Major Cook’s family, he was the the Fort Hawkins Commandant during the War of 1812, an official Proclamation from Macon Mayor Robert A.B. Reichert, and a keynote address by renowned archaeologist and President of The LAMAR Institute, Mr. Dan Elliott. After the marker dedication the public is invited to tour the three story Blockhouse Replica and archaeological dig site with no admission charged for the tours or ceremony. All of Middle Georgia will be proud and amazed at the important role that Fort Hawkins played in this brief but pivotal moment in American history. For more information 478-742-3003/www.forthawkins.com
AND FROM THE JULY 8, 2012 EDITION OF THE MACON TELEGRAPH, WE READ:
“Fort Hawkins Significance Revealed”
By MARTY WILLETT — Special to The Telegraph
Two hundred years ago on June 18, 1812, our young nation declared war on the world’s greatest military power, Great Britain, in order to preserve our newly found freedom from that same oppressive foe.
This past June 18, the Fort Hawkins Commission and the Maj. Philip Cook Chapter of the United States Daughters of 1812 dedicated a new historic marker at our early American frontier fort and factory. This marker proclaims that Fort Hawkins was arguably the most significant site in the South during our “Second War of Independence” being both U.S. Army Headquarters for the entire Southeastern theater and Georgia Militia Headquarters.
This historic marker dedication was attended by more than 100 visitors, who wished to bear testimony to the unveiling of this amazing history in Middle Georgia.
They included many distinguished historians, archaeologists, community leaders and descendants of original fort family members, such as the family of Maj. Philip Cook, the original commander of both the U.S. Army garrison and Georgia Militia stationed at Fort Hawkins during the war.
The true military nature of the marker’s dedication was well represented by our own 48th Infantry Brigade Combat Team and a special appearance by a War of 1812 colonel in his full splendid period regalia. Col. Steve Abolt, commander, 7th U.S. Infantry Living History Association.
“Cottonbalers” provided powerful words of praise for the spirit of the American people both 200 years ago and today.
Lt. Col. Matthew Smith, 48th Brigade deputy commander, reminded all of the continued dedication of our own Middle Georgia Brigade with their distinguished efforts around the world and in our own backyard. Their proud roots can be easily be traced to the citizen soldier and U.S. Army regular troops that helped “preserve us a nation” at Fort Hawkins during the War of 1812. The 48th Brigade Color Guard under the command of Sfc. Stanley Walker provided the needed and polished military bearing the dedication deserved.
The real military importance of Fort Hawkins was detailed precisely and profoundly by featured speaker Dan Elliott, president of the LAMAR Institute and Fort Hawkins lead archaeologist, who has dubbed our fort “The Pentagon of the South.”
As the 15-star spangled banner flew over the fort once again, as it did 200 years ago, we were reminded that our own Fort Hawkins was of equal importance as the famed Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Md.
During Elliott’s introduction, one of the mighty aircraft from Robins Air Force Base flew over and the crowd was reminded that “Every Day In Middle Georgia is Armed Forces Appreciation Day” and it began at Fort Hawkins 200 years ago with its valuable contributions to the national defense and the local economy.
Fort Hawkins not only became Macon’s birthplace, but also played a significant role in saving the nation and developing the southeastern United States during this turning point in American history. Ironically, Macon would help birth Robins AFB out of the tiny town of Wellston. Our military tradition is as awesome as our famous cultural heritage of architecture, education, music, religion, etc.
This proud military history stretches back to the fort’s namesake, Col. Benjamin Hawkins, who served on Gen. George Washington’s Revolutionary War staff. It stretches to the modern world with local heroes such as Medal of Honor recipient Sgt. Rodney Davis and Lanier Poet and NASA astronaut Capt. Sonny Carter.
As the nation begins its Bicentennial Celebration of the War of 1812, Middle Georgia should be proud of our own contribution to this long and steady military tradition that began at Fort Hawkins in 1806.
The Fort Hawkins Commission has plans to preserve and promote its amazing early American history and the public is encouraged to visit the fort’s website: http://www.forthawkins.com and the historic fort site on Emery Highway, now open every weekend with no admission charge and on all patriotic holidays such as our recent 10th annual Fourth of July celebration.
As archaeologist Elliott stated at the War of 1812 Bicentennial celebration marker dedication, “Fort Hawkins is truly an important historical and archaeological gem. It honors the building blocks of freedom and liberty that our ancestors struggled to create and serves as a vivid and noble reminder of the blood shed for human liberty in the War of 1812.”
Marty Willett is the Fort Hawkins Commission Press Officer & Project Coordinator.
Glynn County Board of Education cut the 4th Grade Archaeology Program at Fort Frederica. Very, very “Poor Do” as my mom would have said. That program was vibrant and exciting and stimulated kids to learn. For 18 years it stood as an example for the U.S.A., which was never equaled. All hail Ellen Provenzano and the other scholarly building blocks of that bastion of learning!
Savannah Explores Its Archaeology
May 12, 2012
Savannah Explores Its Archaeology
(Savannah, Georgia, May 11, 2012)
A panel discussion on archaeology in Savannah and Chatham County, Georgia will be held on May 12th at 2:00 at Trinity Church on Telfair Square, Savannah, Georgia. Entitled, “Perspectives in Archaeology Digging for the Truth”, the four discussants include: Dr. Pamela Cressey, archaeologist for the City of Alexandria, Virginia; Neil Dawson, Dawson Architects; Richard Kanaski, Regional Archaeologist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Dr. Sue Moore, Professor of Anthorpology, Georgia Southern University. Michael Jordan will serve as moderator for the event. Partners in this project are Metropolitan Planning Commission, Chatham County Resource Protection Commission (primary hosts for the event), Trinity Church, Chatham County, The Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation, Historic District Board of Review, City of Savannah, the Chatham County Historic Preservation Commission, The LAMAR Institute and Coastal Heritage Society. This discussion will explore a variety of topics on archaeology in Savannah and Chatham County, including the current state of knowledge, need for an archaeological ordinance, and benefits of archaeology for the people of coastal Georgia. The LAMAR Institute is delighted to serve as a co-sponsor of a reception that follows the archaeology discussion. The event is free and open to the public.
More Fort Hawkins Discoveries!
May 12, 2012
More Fort Hawkins Discoveries
(May 11, 2012, Macon, Georgia, Special Press Release by Marty Willett, Fort Hawkins Commission Press Officer & Project Coordinator)
Fort Hawkins continues its May celebration of Archaeology Month in Georgia after a successful dig last week at the early American frontier fort and factory. The “Search For the Northwest Blockhouse” conducted by the LAMAR Institute helped kickoff the month long statewide celebration and determined the exact location of the fort’s other blockhouse that blew over in December, 1880. The preliminary results reflect that after the 1871 cleanup, the 1920’s construction of the Fort Hawkins Grammar School, and finally the widening and paving of Woolfolk Street, all evidence of the blockhouse, save the very bottom of the palisade posts leading to the blockhouse wall, has been erased. However, the research will allow the fort to be fully and accurately mapped now for the first time since it was constructed in 1806.
During the burning of Washington, D.C. by the British in the War of 1812, it is presumed the fort’s plans and early records were destroyed because they do not exist today. Since the Fort Hawkins Commission began its archaeological research with the help of the Peyton Anderson Foundation in 2005, more has been discovered about the fort than ever known before and why the Commission’s web site is called “The Real Fort Hawkins.”
The fort and the “Second War of Independence” are featured prominently on the Society for Georgia Archaeology’s May 2012 Celebration poster. On June 18, 2012 the Major Phillip Cook Chapter of the Daughters of the War of 1812 and the Commission will dedicate a War of 1812 Bicentennial Celebration historic marker at the fort site.
Just completed at the fort site is the new protective covering over a 200 year old double brick fireplace hearth uncovered in the 2005 dig. One of the many surprises unearthed then that documented a more significant and substantial Fort Hawkins than previously thought, the unique brick feature is now better preserved and shared in a new outdoor interpretive display at the fort. The Macon Town Committee of the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in the State of Georgia sponsored this important preservation project and its completion adds to the site’s Archaeology Month Celebration.
Visitors to the fort this Saturday, May 12, 2012 will see more of the site’s treasures uncovered as the Boy Scouts of America join the celebration. Troop 10 of the Central Georgia Council BSA will aid one of their member’s Eagle Scout project to reclaim and stabilize the 1930’s WPA stone pool constructed when the Southeast Blockhouse Replica was built. The scouts will be digging out the stone pool, screening for artifacts, and building a berm that will prevent future flooding. Not only will this project improve the site’s appearance, but also allow the feature to be fully restored by the Commission as they fully develop the fort site. The site off Emery Highway in Macon is open every Saturday, 10:00 am – 4:00 pm and Sunday 12:00 – 4:00 pm with no admission charge. For more information call or click 478-742-3003 or http://www.forthawkins.com.
Remember Donald Wayne Campbell
May 9, 2012
Obituary for my friend, Donald “Eon” Wayne Campbell, the Vice-President of the C&E Broom Company, Cedar Grove, Georgia and founding member of the short-lived garage band, The South Side Cedar Grove Salvation Army Marching Blues Band. Back in the Day.
Way down yonder neath the Chattahoochee
April 26, 2012
I’d like to invite you to attend a panel discussion on archaeology on May 12th at 2:00 at Trinity Church on Telfair Square- please see attached flyer. There will be a reception afterwards. Also please forward to others who may be interested.
Special thanks to our reception sponsors: The LAMAR Institute and Coastal Heritage Society.
Our partners in the project are: Metropolitan Planning Commission, Chatham County Resource Protection Commission, Trinity Church, Chatham County, The Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation, Historic District Board of Review, City of Savannah and the Chatham County Historic Preservation Commission, The LAMAR Institute and Coastal Heritage Society.
Ellen I. Harris, LEED A.P., AICP
Cultural Resource and Urban Planning Manager
Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission
110 East State Street
Savannah, Georgia 31401
Tel.: (912) 651-1482
Fax: (912) 651-1480
Past Perfect in Savannah:
Rita Folse Elliott lectured on the subject of Savannah’s underground. The talk on April 17, 2012 began with a free reception at 6:30PM at the Kennedy Pharmacy at 323 East Broughton Street. For more information:
Savannah Civil War Films Grand Premiere
March 27, 2012
News Release on debut of two films on Savannah in the Civil War showing on April 12, 2012, 7:30PM, Fort Pulaski National Park, Georgia.SavannahCivilWarFilms
See also Phil Gast’s blog story at:
Savannah’s Underground Revolutionary War
January 30, 2012
Savannah’s Underground Revolutionary War
(Savannah, Georgia, January 30, 2012)
The American Revolution in Savannah, Georgia was the focus of archaeological excavations conducted from 2005-2011. The historical research and archaeological discoveries from this work are contained within four reports that are now available for free download. A related curriculum for 4th and 5th grade teachers is also available for download at no charge to anyone interested. The first project was funded by the Coastal Heritage Society, Savannah, Georgia. The National Park Service funded much of the later work, including two reports and the curriculum, through two American Battlefield Protection Program grants. All work was conducted under the auspices of the Curatorial Department of the Coastal Heritage Society (Savannah, Georgia) in partnership with The LAMAR Institute (Savannah, Georgia) and under the direction of Rita Folse Elliott. We invite you to download the reports and learn more about Savannah’s role in this pivotal American event. To obtain these reports, visit: http://thelamarinstitute.org. See Reports 104 and 173-176.
Historical and Natural Resources in Georgia—NOT!
January 18, 2012
CLICK HERE TO READ GOVERNOR DEAL’s DEAL
Write, Call, Email, Telegraph, or Otherwise Contact Your Guy on This Vital Topic
Georgia Governor Nathan Deal has introduced a proposed budget that will slash Historic Preservation in Georgia to mortally wounded levels. Here is my email: “I am emailing you to renew your awareness of my interest in historic preservation in Georgia and to urge your support to maintain funding levels for the Historic Preservation Division (HPD) in the upcoming budget. I have 35 years experience in historic preservation in Georgia and I have witnessed operations at the state government at greatly reduced funding levels compared to that currently enjoyed. It was not a pretty sight! The current staff at HPD has done a commendable job in advancing historic preservation issues in Georgia over the past decade, in spite of the drastic budget cuts of the past couple of years. To even further cut their budget, as Governor Deal recommends, would be a death sentence for this important part of our state government. The guidance from the HPD office is the catalyst that keeps many construction projects flowing. If their funding levels are reduced, then the permitting process for upcoming development projects will be slowed considerably. Or, projects will proceed on their own terms and face the potential violation of state and federal permitting regulations. Historic Preservation need not be a negative force in Georgia government but this is the potential if historic preservationists are shut out of the discussion. Many organizations, such as the LAMAR Institute, the Coosawattee Foundation and the Archaeological Conservancy, operate in Georgia outsite of direct government funding, but these organizations are too meager to handle the needs of the entire state. A modest budget for HPD will go a long way in maintaining responsible stewardship of our past. I hope we can count on you to be a voice in favor of recognizing and honoring Georgia’s architectual, archaeological and historical past.”
AND below is a repost from Tom Crawford’s blog that displays the sad state of affairs in Georgia:
The makeover of the DNR board is completed
By Tom Crawford | Published: January 27, 2012
The state Board of Natural Resources completed a historic changeover this week as it said goodbye to an environmental advocate and installed in one of its top positions a lobbyist whose firm’s clients include a utility that is one of Georgia’s largest sources of air pollution.
Board members voted formally on Tuesday to elect Philip Watt, a non-practicing physician from Thomasville, as their new chairman. They also elected Rob Leebern, a lobbyist with Troutman Sanders Strategies, as the new vice chairman.
Watt replaces Earl Barrs, the board chairman in 2011 who was removed from the panel when Gov. Nathan Deal decided not to reappoint him. Warren Budd, last year’s vice chairman who normally would have rotated to the chairmanship, was also ousted from the panel when Deal refused to reappoint him to another term as well.
Budd was booted from the board after he spoke out against two initiatives that are important to Deal.
Budd expressed skepticism about Deal’s proposals to build more reservoirs in North Georgia and he also criticized the Environmental Protection Division (EPD) for imposing a miniscule fine of only $1 million on a textile company that discharged chemicals into the Ogeechee River, causing the largest fish kill in Georgia’s history (the company could have been subject to fines of more than $90 million).
“I was told to hush up on both of them,” Budd said. “I was warned and I didn’t do it, and that is why I’m off.”
When reporters contacted the governor’s office about Budd’s removal from the board, Deal’s spokesman issued this reply: “If anyone on any board considers himself indispensable, this is what educators call a ‘teachable moment.’ It takes an eyebrow-raising amount of self-regard for someone to suggest publicly that, out of 10 million Georgians, only he or she brings a diverse viewpoint to a board.”
He added that the governor wanted to appoint board members “who are excited team players ready to carry out his agenda for our state.”
The removal of Budd from the Board of Natural Resources is a watershed moment, if you’ll pardon the expression, for the board that oversees and sets policy for both the Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Protection Division.
Budd was one of the few remaining board members who could realistically be considered a conservationist dedicated to protecting the state’s environment and natural resources.
Deal has made it clear that environmental protection is not the primary mission of either DNR or EPD anymore. Both agencies are now expected to advance the cause of economic development and job creation, even though state government already has a Department of Economic Development headed by Commissioner Chris Cummiskey.
The change in mission is vividly illustrated by the installation of Rob Leebern as the new vice chairman in place of Budd.
Budd is considered to be an environmentally sensitive conservationist. Ogeechee Riverkeeper Diana Wedincamp described him as a “friend of the rivers.”
Leebern is a skilled political operative who’s been working inside the Washington beltway for years, first as chief of staff for Sen. Saxby Chambliss and a top fundraiser for George W. Bush, and more recently with the Washington office of Troutman Sanders.
One of Troutman Sanders’ biggest clients over the years has been Georgia Power, which operates two coal-fired power generation facilities in Georgia, Plant Scherer and Plant Bowen, that are ranked by the EPA as America’s largest sources of greenhouse gases.
Whenever Georgia Power goes to the Public Service Commission to secure a rate increase or fight off demands for a risk-sharing mechanism to minimize cost overruns on their nuclear plants, Troutman Sanders partner Kevin Greene is the man who argues their case.
“It is outrageous to make a lobbyist for the biggest polluter in Georgia and the biggest user of water an officer of the DNR board,” said Mark Woodall of the Sierra Club of Georgia. “I’ve been going to these meetings for 25 years and this is by far the worst board, in terms of balancing the public and private interests of the state of Georgia, that I’ve ever seen.”
The changeover on the DNR board has been happening gradually since Sonny Perdue took office as governor in 2003.
When Perdue was first sworn in as the state’s chief executive, there were three prominent environmental advocates on the DNR board: former lieutenant governor Pierre Howard, Columbus attorney Jim Butler and Sally Bethea, director of the Upper Chattahoochee Riverkeeper. All three of those people were removed from the board during the course of Perdue’s administration.
Howard was the first to go. In 2003, the Republicans who assumed control of the Georgia Senate refused to confirm nearly 180 people who had been appointed to state boards and commissions by former governor Roy Barnes, a Democrat, during his last year in office (2002). Howard was among that mass of people removed from state boards.
Perdue tried to replace Butler on the DNR board in 2003 before Butler’s term had expired. Butler promptly sued the governor in Fulton County Superior Court, where a judge ordered Butler’s reinstatement to the board. When Butler’s term expired two years later, Perdue then was legally allowed to appoint a replacement.
Perdue did reappoint Bethea to the DNR board, but she was removed from the panel in the same manner as Howard when the Republican majority in the Georgia Senate declined to confirm her reappointment.
Perdue also appointed Budd, a Newnan insurance agent, to the DNR board in 2005.
“He knew where I stood,” Budd said of Perdue. “He allowed a diversity of people on there. He appointed people that were pro-conservation. Gov. Barnes did that, too.”
Budd is a lifelong Republican who invokes Teddy Roosevelt as the kind of Republican who believed in conservation. He says his interest in environmental issues was sparked as a young man when his father, Methodist minister Candler Budd, gave him copies of the Rachel Carson books Silent Spring and The Sea Around Us.
“That’s true conservatism,” Budd said. “Conservatism is conserving what’s good.”
There was another indication this week of just how deeply involved lobbyists are going to be in setting environmental policy for the state over the next few years.
One of the most talked-about social events of the week among capitol observers was a dinner sponsored by several lobbyists Wednesday night for members of the House Natural Resources and Environment Committee.
The dinner took place at the Parish restaurant in Atlanta’s Inman Park neighborhood and the event was staked out by several environmental activists, as well as by an Atlanta Journal-Constitution reporter and a photographer. At one point, we’re told, an environmentalist attempted to give Rep. Lynn Smith (R-Newnan), the committee chair, a list of Georgia’s “Dirty Dozen” polluted waterways.
According to an email invitation sent to committee members, the event’s sponsors included Georgia Power, the Georgia Association of Manufacturers, the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce, Joe Tanner and Associates, the Georgia Conservancy, the Georgia Chemistry Council, the Georgia Agribusiness Council, the Georgia Forestry Association, the Georgia Poultry Federation, AGL Resources, the Georgia Mining Association, and the Georgia Paper and Forest Producers Association.
On the same day that the elegant dinner was held for the legislators, the new vice chairman of the DNR board, Leebern, proposed that Georgia’s top environmental regulator be given a $20,000 bump in his annual salary.
Leebern made a motion for the DNR board to increase the salary of EPD Director Jud Turner — a former lobbyist — to $175,000 a year. His motion passed by a unanimous vote of the board.
© 2012 by The Georgia Report
Abby Arrives At Fort Hawkins
October 24, 2011
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Abby Arrives At Fort Hawkins
Abby the Archaeobus arrived at Fort Hawkins today for a special week at the 200 year old fort. Abby is Georgia’s Mobile Archaeological Classroom sponsored by the Society for Georgia Archaeology and arrives after a successful visit to the Georgia National Fair and the SGA Fall Conference. However, this is Abby’s very first visit to an archaeological dig and her visit provides an even more educational opportunity while the fort’s archaeological dig being done by The LAMAR Institute is in progress. Abby makes learning about archaeology fun with colorful and interactive exhibits that all relate to the ongoing archaeological research being done for the Fort Hawkins Commission at the historic site, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Abby invites everyone to come visit during this next week at Fort Hawkins for a unique educational experience – archaeology as real living history! The fort site will be open each day from October 24 to October 31 until 4:00 p.m. with no admission charge. During the week days while the dig team continues its research, the public is invited to come view their work and now visit Abby too! The Commission has had the historic site open each weekend since March and during this month visitors have enjoyed touring the dig site and now visit Abby too! On the final day of the dig, Monday, October 31, there will be a Press Conference at 3:00 p.m. at Fort Hawkins to share some of the amazing dig discoveries and to view the actual excavations, and of course to visit Abby too! At 5:00 p.m. on October 31 the first Fort Hawkins Halloween Hauntings will begin and the biggest treat at this free, fun, family event will be, of course, to visit Abby! Abby keeps a blog about her adventures across the state on the SGA website, so let’s make her feel at home here in the Heart of Georgia and come visit during this rare and special appearance! Please call for group visits or more information 478-742-3003 and visit http://www.forthawkins.com
Marty Willett, Fort Hawkins Commission Press Officer & Project Coordinator
1022 Walnut Street
Macon, GA 31201
Responses from the Media:
WRWR-TV, Warner Robins:
Fort Hawkins Dig News–October 2011
October 4, 2011
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 10/03/11
Fort Hawkins Archaeological Dig Returns
During the entire month of October historic Fort Hawkins will see more of its early American history uncovered as The LAMAR Institute resumes the archaeological research of the outer palisade wall and Northwest Blockhouse. The British burned the fort’s plans and records when they burned Washington, D.C. in the War of 1812, so the past research done by The LAMAR Institute revealed details of the fort that were unknown until now. Erected in 1806 on the eastern Ocmulgee River, the fort was the frontier of America overlooking the Muscogee Creek Nation on the western side of the river. As U.S. Army and Georgia Militia Headquarters, the fort played a significant role in the Southeastern Theater of America’s “Second War of Independence.”
The LAMAR Institute’s past archaeological research revealed a more significant and substantial Fort Hawkins than ever known before and the complete archaeological report can be found at the Fort Hawkins Commission’s website http://www.forthawkins.com, which is called “The Real Fort Hawkins” due to their critical research. LAMAR President and Lead Archaeologist, Dan Elliott, was so astounded by the wealth of new information that he dubbed the fort as “The Pentagon of the South” which verified its extreme importance in the War of 1812. This Phase 1 research from 2005 – 2007 documented the fort’s footprint and provided enough crucial information to create for the first time a Fort Hawkins Master Plan, also found on the Commission’s website.
Phase 2 to document the fort’s outer palisade wall is being concluded this month and was made possible by a generous grant from the Peyton Anderson Foundation. The Commission plans to use this needed documentation to begin raising the ten foot tall timber palisade wall next year as part of the National Bicentennial Celebration of the War of 1812. Both the archaeological dig and palisade reconstruction, along with the fort’s expanded patriotic educational public programming and expanded hours of operation, being open every weekend since March, will lead to the capital funding needed to open the historic site full time as a self sustaining national and regional educational historic site just in time for the approaching National Celebration.
Although the professional and volunteer dig team is in place, the public will be invited to view the dig daily beginning Monday, October 10 and all Friends of Fort Hawkins will be able to help with the dig or as Commission Project Coordinator Marty Willett puts it enthusiastically “to get on their knees for history!” A Press Conference to announce some of the sure-to-be amazing discoveries is scheduled at 3:00 pm at the fort on the dig’s final day, October 31. This will be a real treat with more tricks and treats later for the community during the fort’s first Halloween program. For more dig information call Elliott at 706-341-7796 and for more Friends of Fort Hawkins information call Willett at 478-742-3003.
Marty Willett, Fort Hawkins Commission Press Officer & Project Coordinator
1022 Walnut Street
Macon, GA 31201
Fort Hawkins Halloween Hauntings
5-8 p.m. Oct. 31, Fort Hawkins Blockhouse Replica, Emery Highway. Visitors will enjoy some fun old fashion tricks and treats along with candlelight tours of the three story Blockhouse Replica, jack-o-lantern carving with the Irish legend about “Jack” and of course a Halloween bonfire. The official Ghostbusters will be on hand to help the Fort Hawkins Commission with its first Ghost Watch at the 200-year-old early American frontier fort. Free. 742-3003 or http://www.forthawkins.com.
So, is Fort Hawkins haunted? Consider the case of Captain Kit Keiser. Captain Christopher “Kit” Keiser, United States Army, served as commander of Fort Hawkins from 1818 until his untimely death at Fort Hawkins, sometime prior to November 5, 1819. Keiser was Deputy Quartermaster Master General at Fort Hawkins at the time of his command appointment by Major General Edmund P. Gaines. Keiser is the only one of the fort’s commandants whose death at the fort is documented. What were the circumstances surrounding his death, and who was Christopher Keiser? Was his lifeless body cut down where it was hanging in the bell tower of the fort’s blockhouse????? WOOOOOOOOOOOOO~~~mooooore wooooork is neeeeeeded!!!!
LAMAR Institute archaeologist Joel Jones is shovel shaving as trackhoe operator Curtis Perry exposes the southwestern outer corner of Fort Hawkins as the Fort Hawkins Archaeological Project resumes on October 3, 2011.
NBC news local affiliate Channel 41 had this news story at 6PM:
[blip.tv http://blip.tv/play/hNYLgtbXPAI width=”480″ height=”382″]
Associated Press article, October 4, 2011:
Fort Hawkins Again! Turn your radio on…
September 7, 2011
The LAMAR Institute, the Society for Georgia Archaeology, the Fort Hawkins Commission, the Friends of Fort Hawkins and volunteers will team up and return to excavate at Fort Hawkins in Macon, Georgia this October. Here is a link to a short article about it by Josephine Bennett on Georgia Public Radio (GPB):
The upcoming project will target the fort walls on the western side, and a portion of the southern wall. A team of volunteers is shaping up and the project will end with ghost tales of Fort Hawkins on Halloween. It does begin on a sad note, however, with the death of Bob Cramer this past weekend. Dr. Robert Cramer had served as chairman of the Fort Hawkins Commission for several decades. He was the one who first lured me to the fort in the early 1990s. He was a friendly man who truly loved Georgia archaeology and history.
Special thanks to Marty Willett, the Peyton Anderson Foundation, the Fort Hawkins Commission, the City of Macon, New Town Macon, the Friends of Fort Hawkins and other tireless backers for making this project happen. See also, http://forthawkins.com
The results of the present project should wind up the first excavation phase under the Fort Hawkins Commission’s Master Plan. We expect our report on the work to be available to the public in 2012, in time for the 200th anniversary of the War of 1812. I am wrapping up a study of the New Orleans battlefield (December 1814-January 1815) for the National Park Service and the St. Bernard Parish Government in Louisiana, so my mind is in the correct decade for a fitting return to Fort Hawkins.
Here is a link to listen to a podcast of the radio broadcast:
Yep, shoreline is eroding and archaeological sites are being lost at a bewildering rate.–What global warming?
Pin Point and Clarence Thomas
June 20, 2011
Link to recent news stories about Clarence Thomas, Harlan Crow, Pin Point, wealthy benefactor, etc.
An article in the Sunday New York Times:
Forts in Georgia
May 10, 2011
Lisa O’Steen searches for early Georgia fort in Oconee County.
Grant will fund dig at Oconee site || OnlineAthens.com
By Erin France, May 10, 2011
An archaeologist will use grant funding this year to pay for investigating what may be the remains of a fort along the Oconee River east of Watkinsville.
The Watson Brown Foundation Athens’ Junior Board of Trustees recently awarded Athens Land Trust a $6,250 grant for an archaeological study of a site near the Oconee River and Barnett Shoals Road that some experts believe once housed a fort on the border between United States territory and Native American lands.
Archaeologist Lisa O’Steen likely will launch the study this summer, though much of the work could wait until fall and winter after the area’s heavy vegetation dies off, said Nancy Stangle, the Athens Land Trust’s executive director.
“We’re glad it’s happening now,” Stangle said.
O’Steen will explore the site and likely will find artifacts from both early Georgian settlers and Native Americans, she said.
Stangle’s also curious about the fort’s name, she said.
The ruins could be Fort Matthews or Fort Henry – there’s not enough evidence to prove either name at this time, she said.
“We have the additional mystery that we are trying to solve with which fort it was,” Stangle said.
The property owner, Celestea Sharp, also is curious about the name and history behind the fort, and already has agreed to help preserve found artifacts as well as the site, she said.
Sharp directed and distributed “Carving Up Oconee,” a documentary about grassroots activism in development issues. She’s also written a book about the history of Oconee County’s town of Bishop.
“Having her historical expertise … it’s just an excellent asset to the project,” Stangle said.
Junior board of trustees member Glenn Reece toured the site and was impressed with Athens Land Trust’s enthusiasm for the project, he said.
“It shows that they’re really interested and they really care about what they’re trying to get money for,” Reece said.
Reece is a junior at Monsignor Donovan Catholic High School, and this is his second year on the junior board of trustees, he said.
Board members sometimes disagree about which projects they should fund, but most members agreed about funding the archaeological study, he said.
“It’s hard to divvy up who gets what because we’re on a limited budget,” Reece said.
This is the second time the Athens Land Trust received the grant, said Shannon Hayes, the junior board of trustees’ adviser.
“The original grant would have gone through with no problems, but the property owner (at the time) decided to put the property up for sale,” said Hayes, who also works as the program coordinator at the T.R.R. Cobb House in Athens.
Members awarded the grant in 2008, then took the money back when the archaeological study wasn’t completed, she said. Sharp bought the land after that and OK’d the study.
Yuchi Yuchi Yuchi
April 18, 2011
Coming Soon–A New Book about the Yuchi Nation:
“One of the Other Nations”: Yuchi Indian Histories Before the Removal Era, edited by Jason Baird Jackson. In press , University of Nebraska Press.
I have Chapter 5 in it, which deals with the discovery of the Yuchi village at Mount Pleasant (9EF169) in Effingham County, Georgia.
Short History of Brass Knuckles in America
April 1, 2011
This post contains the results of my quick internet research on the early history of brass knuckles in America. My curiosity was aroused after watching a television documentary made in 1999 about the Irish in New Orleans. In that documentary, the writer attributed the first use of brass knuckles in America to the Irish (not a direct quote). This evening I did a brief search of several internet sources to determine if this was a valid statement. Also, as an archaeologist I sought to determine if brass knuckles can be accurately dated, since they are occasionally found in archaeological contexts and archaeologists are always eager to identify artifacts that serve as time markers.
As expected, searching with Google.com, I met with several websites that tracked brass knuckles back to the Romans, and even the Greeks. The intermediate era, like the past 1500 years or so, were glossed over in these “histories’. The terms “brass knuckle” and “knuckle duster” (and various variants of these two concepts) were cited as early names for these items, along with some vague etymological link to the German language.
The earliest use of the term that I was able to locate using Google Books in Europe was in 1862, when The Archaeological Journal, an archaeological publication in the British Isles, published an article about a personal collection of armour that noted, “A pair of gauntlets is described in the next item, of ancient fashion, and with brass knuckles (condolis de latone). Examples are not wanting of representations of gauntlets thus ornamented in monumental portraitures, such as the effigy of John de Montacute in Salisbury Cathedral; he died in 1388.’ In a Computus of the Treasurer of the Dauphin, in 1333, a payment occurs for ‘guantis lattunatis;’—for a pair ‘de caligis de latono,”‘<fcc. These may, however, have been gauntlets wholly of brass, such as those still suspended over the tomb of the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral.” (The Archaeological Journal 1862: 163).
I then searched Google Books for earlier references in America and restricted my search to the 18th and 19th century. I was surprised to find that the term “brass knuckles” did not appear in a printed book until 1855. A similar search of 18th and 19th century newspapers contained in the archives at Genealogybank.com pushed the earliest reference to “brass knuckles” back to February, 1855.
The City Council of New Albany, Indiana noted in their proceedings:
“Mr. Weir offered the following.
Resolved, That the Committee on Ordinances beinstructed to report an ordinance prohibiting the carrying or using of instruments called brass knuckles.
Mr. Stoy moved to amend by striking out brass knuckles and inserting ‘any kind of concealed weapons,’ which amendment was lost.
Mr. Kent moved to amend by making the resolution read, ‘Brass Knuckles, Slung Shot, or other dangerous weapons;’ which amendment was accepted, and the resolution as amended adopted by the following vote…” (New Albany Daily Ledger 1855:2).
Then I discovered an antique brass knuckle collector’s group on Yahoo.com and I emailed one of their members, Daniel White, with an question about the origins of brass knuckles in America. He graciously provided a quick reply, in which he stated, “Some of the earliest ones I know of are the Sam Houston lead knuckles which are on display at the Sam Houston Schoolhouse Museum in Maryville, Tennessee. Apparently he was only at the school in 1812 and the knuckles(which have his name carved into them and appear to be handmade) were supposedly found hidden above the door frame during a renovation in the 1950’s. I also believe brass knuckles were brought over by Chinese immigrants during the early to mid 1800’s and I think these strongly influenced the style of the most common cast iron knuckles made during and after the Civil War.”
I signed up to join the Yahoo.com group and examined a series of uploaded photographs of brass, lead and cast iron knuckles dating to the Civil War era. Most of these were posted by Mr. White. They reflect a variety of styles. Thanks to Mr. White and his colleagues for furthering the history of this intriguing weapon type.
If White is correct, this would push the begin date for brass knuckles in America back to 1812. If this is so, then why did it take the popular press in America four decades to final document these useful weapons of personal protection? Cleary, the 1855 city ordinance shows that public officials in this wild and wooly Ohio River town saw the need to regulate brass knuckles by 1855, which implies their presence for several years prior. The wording in their ordinance, however, infers a “newness” and relatively unfamiliarity with the term brass knuckles. Perhaps brass knuckles had been around for many decades but were considered vulgar items and not suitable for “polite society”, or the printed word. Perhaps they were hovering below the public radar, tucked inside the pockets of the men (and maybe even the women) who were busy populating the American heartland. Can these weapons be traced to the Asians, many of whom were being imported to America to perform manual labor? Or were they brought by Irish laborers from Great Britain? Or possibly both? Was the manufacture of cast iron knuckles an American innovation? And were lead knuckles the first type used in America? Were any used in the War of 1812, or in the American Revolution? Thus far, I have found no references to their use in those earlier wars.
Composite weapons that included Brass knuckles, knives, and/or handguns existed in America by the 1860s. Common phrases, such as “knuckle sandwich” “bare knuckles”, and “knucklehead”, may hide clues to this puzzle. By World War I, brass knuckles were a common weapon and effective in the trench warfare that characterized that war. Similarly, brass knuckles continued to be used as weapons in World War II. If these weapons were official weapons in the American Civil War, documentary evidence for it is elusive. Collector reports demonstrate that brass, lead or cast iron knuckles are widespread (albeit relatively rare) on battlegrounds in the South. Were these personal weapons sold by sutlers in the Army camps? Which examples were sand cast, possibly by the soldiers themselves, and which were cast at furnaces or forges? Were the lead examples made from melted bullets? Were they used by both Union and Confederate soldiers? The present contextual information for these battlefield relics do not adequately answer these questions.
My own archaeological research over the past 35 years has yielded only one pair of knuckles. This was a broken example made from cast iron that I recovered from a 19th-20th century house (Alma Boyd House) on the Sumter National Forest in Abbeville County, South Carolina. It came from surface context, so its age was unknown. Any other archaeologists who have encountered this tool type, please let me know. Clearly, more research is needed, and I hope to report back.
New Albany Daily Ledger
1855 Proceedings of the Council. New Albany Daily Ledger, February 7, 1855:2.
The Archaeological Journal
Original Documents. The Armour and Arms Belonging to Henry Bowet, Archbishop of York, Deceased in 1423, from the Roll of his Executors’ Accounts. The Archaeological Journal 19:159-163.
Marching Through Georgia: Tracking Sherman Backwards Through Archaeology
February 16, 2011
The year 2011 began for me by tracking he archaeological footprint of Major General William Tecumseh Sherman’s 20th Corps backwards through the State of Georgia. My sample consists of two relatively minor places of conflict, Dug Gap on Rocky Face Ridge and Monteith Swamp near Savannah. By the word minor, I mean that both battles did not greatly add substantially to the overall death count in the war. It does not mean, however, that these two engagements were meaningless. The battle at Dug Gap took place on May 8, 1864 and the battle at Monteith Swamp was on December 9, 1864. Between these two military events was Sherman’s social engineering project to “Make Georgia Howl”. Efforts to delineate these two battlefields on the modern-day landscape were very successful and laboratory analysis and reporting phases are underway. This information will be presented to the public by years end.
Savannah Under Fire Stakeholders Presentation
February 3, 2011
This link is the Powerpoint Show and presentation text in PDF format.SavannahUnderFire_StakeholdersPresentation
Fort Hawkins is Up and Running!
February 2, 2011
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
February 1, 2011
At today’s Macon City Council’s Community Resource & Development Committee Meeting, the Fort Hawkins Commission announced that it has hired a full time Project Coordinator to expand both educational public programs and fund raising efforts. The 1930’s Blockhouse Replica on Emery Highway will be opened to the public without charge every weekend through December beginning in March during the Cherry Blossom Festival. The already popular public program schedule of 18 events (attached) will be continued and expanded. The equally popular Friends of Fort Hawkins will be renewed and revitalized with more on site participation opportunities.
The Commission further plans to continue archaeological research at the fort site this fall, which will lead to the rebuilding of the 1806 Fort Hawkins palisade wall at the beginning of the Bicentennial Celebration of the War of 1812. The Commission’s commitment to become a living history educational center will continue with the introduction of more demonstrations at public events and classes to teach the crafts, skills and arts that allowed Fort Hawkins to grow and prosper on the American frontier – seventeen years before the birth of Macon. All such artisans will soon have a place to regularly share and teach these nearly lost skills at the fort – once again.
The Commission’ s Chairman, Marty Willett, has been retained to provide this professional contribution to begin their full time effort to fund and implement the Fort Hawkins Master Plan. This endeavor is far from the parliamentary duties required of the Chairman by the City and allows the Commission to take the fort to this next level of public recognition and participation leading hopefully to the full development of the historic site. Willett has served for the past five years as Chairman of the all volunteer, non city funded, official city commission. Willett and Mr. Ed DeFore are the only current commission members that were on the 1990 commission created by then Mayor Lee Robinson to find a better way to preserve and promote the fort site than just part of the city’s famed green spaces in our “City in a Park.”
The Commission’s archaeological research revealed a more significant and substantial Fort Hawkins than ever known before and finally allowed this long awaited site development plan to be created. The Master Plan, Archaeological Report, Public Program Schedule, Friends Program and much more are found on the Commission’s web site “The Real Fort Hawkins” at http://www.forthawkins.com. The public has direct access to the Commission’s exciting plans with the web site, and with today’s announcement, soon even more access to the fort site with its breathtaking view and equally breathtaking early American history. Willett has been active for over 38 years with historic site development and interpretation beginning with the Georgia Historical Commission at the Lapham-Patterson State Historic Site & National Landmark in his hometown of Thomasville in 1972.
Willett’s excitement and enthusiasm is hard to contain. “Fort Hawkins is not only Macon’s Birthplace, but it also played an important part in America’s birth and our expanded efforts will hopefully get the site open daily as the National Bicentennial of the War of 1812 begins next year. When the British burned Washington, D.C. in 1814 they destroyed the fort’s plans and records so only our recent research has finally begun to reveal the real Fort Hawkins. With our dedication to archaeology and living history plus its own rich history, the Fort Hawkins Historic Site is destined to become a successful, self-sustaining local, regional and national educational resource and tremendous economic generator plus a place to share our local and national pride.” And he could continue to expound, but it is all found at http://www.forthawkins.com and soon every weekend!
1022 Walnut Street
Macon, GA 31201
An earlier Civil War battle in Savannah, 1779
January 14, 2011
On October 9, 1779 American and British armies clashed on the west side of Savannah, Georgia. The armies and their allies, including Haitian, Irish, Scottish, German, African-American, Polish, and Danish officers and private soldiers, engaged in a deadly conflict that proved to be one of the costliest for the Americans in the American Revolution. The war in the South was pretty much a civil war, as neighbors split between Patriots and Loyalists. Savannah contains the forensic evidence of this battle, as unearthed by archaeologists. Come hear this story on February 1, 2011 in Savannah. The LAMAR Institute is proud to be one of the sponsors of this important work.
Archaeology Press Release January 14 2011by Savannah Under Fire on Friday, January 14, 2011 at 5:35pm
What ever happened to all that Revolutionary War archaeology being done in Savannah? What did archaeologists discover? How can people who live, work, and play in Savannah and Chatham County become involved with archaeological sites? Can preserving sites help the area’s economy and quality of life? Come to an archaeology presentation and public meeting Feb. 1, 2011 to find out and to offer suggestions. Coastal Heritage Society will reveal Revolutionary War discoveries in Savannah stemming from the two “Savannah Under Fire” projects conducted from 2007-2011. The projects uncovered startling discoveries, including trenches, fortifications, and battle debris. The research also showed that residents and tourists are interested in these sites. Archaeologists will describe the findings and explore ways to generate economic income and increase the quality of life of area residents. Following the presentation the public will be invited to offer comments and suggestions about such resources. Don’t miss this rare opportunity to provide input. The meeting is sponsored by the Coastal Heritage Society, through a grant from the National Park Service, American Battlefield Protection Program. It is free and open to the public. Time: 6-7 p.m. Location: Savannah History Museum auditorium, 303 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd, Savannah, Georgia (same building as the Visitors’ Center on MLK). Date: Feb. 1, 2011. Thanks!!
War of 1812 in Georgia–Search for Fort Lawrence
January 6, 2011
On Saturday, February 5, a team of archaeologists, historians, veteran land surveyors and interested laypersons will venture into the forests of Taylor County, Georgia in search of Fort Lawrence on the untamed Flint River. This United States Army fort was an important post in the War of 1812 period. Its archaeological remains have yet to be located. We are excited at the prospects of locating this important place so that it can be studied and properly interpreted to the public. This is a pro bono project by the team members. Any support (or additional information about the site) is appreciated!
i before e except after c
December 24, 2010
People of Earth,
The word “siege” is spelled “siege” and not “seige”. As in “Seige of Savannah” where nearly 40,000 web pages have it spelled wrong, not to mention many books, articles, organization websites, etc. Is it too much to ask to spell this wright? –Respectfully submitted, Daniel Thornton Elliott, Esquire, M.A., R.P.A. (not Elliot). Pet Peeve Number 347a.
Fort Hawkins continues bicentennial celebration – Opinion – Macon.com
December 12, 2010
Monteith Swamp Battlefield-Week Two
November 20, 2010
Here is a brief update on LAMAR Institute’s Civil War battlefield survey at Monteith Swamp, Chatham and Effingham Counties, Georgia. We located two good portions of the battlefield. One is in the northwest corner of Harrison’s Field and the other is further north in the swamp margin. Finds include grapeshot, bullets, a scabbard tip. Other finds may be related to the Civil War period, including cut lead, cut brass, many 19th century buttons, and various iron and brass hardware. We also found a fine specimen of earlier U.S. button. Today we covered part of the battle with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) coverage. Late in the afternoon we discovered the northern battle area. Tired again, breaking for Thanksgiving and Christmas.
Monteith Swamp Battlefield Survey
November 12, 2010
Survey of the Civil War battlefield began this week at Monteith Swamp in Chatham and Effingham Counties, Georgia. After a slow two days, on the third day we were rewarded with about two dozen iron grapeshot and about a dozen fired brass percussion caps that clued us into the battlefield landscape. Since then we have been plugging along unearthing and mapping an assortment of battle and post-battle objects in Harrison’s Field. Dog tired tonight after a week working in beautiful weather. A flock of turkeys kept a watchful eye on the crew. More later.
Certain Mounds of the Georgia Coast, by Clarence Bloomfield Moore
October 17, 2010
This book by C.B. Moore is available on Google Books as a .pdf
Available at this link:
Wal-Mart Superstore Threatens Wilderness Battlefield
October 14, 2010
This site has an easy link for sending an email with your thoughts to the CEO of Walmart. Git er done.
Battle of Lovejoy Redefined
August 24, 2010
In 1993 the National Park Service defined the battle and battlefield of Lovejoy Station, Georgia for a congressionally-mandated study of Civil War battlefields in America. That definition was off the mark. In 2007 an archaeological study of the Nash Farm near Lovejoy by the LAMAR Institute yielded new information on Civil War action in the Lovejoy area. Even more recently, archaeological survey for the Georgia Department of Transportation has substantially expanded the Civil War military landscape at Lovejoy. The National Park Service, American Battlefield Protection Program reassessed the Civil War battlefields in America, including the battle of Lovejoy. Their reconfigured map greatly expands the battlefield landscape to incorporate many of the findings from the two recent archaeological studies.
A recent article by Johnny Jackson in the Henry Daily Herald stated:
“Validation has come for Nash Farm Battlefield’s role in the American Civil War.
The battlefield has been designated by the National Park Service as one of 384 core battlefields of the Civil War, according to Julie Hoover-Ernst, communications director for Henry County.
“This is the highest validation a battlefield can receive, and the designation was given upon the completion of the comprehensive update to the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission [or CWSAC] Report on the Nation’s Civil War Battlefields published in June 2010,” Hoover-Ernst said, in a written statement.
The updated report, from CWSAC’s American Battlefield Protection Program, was based on interviews with historians and experts, and includes the designation of the Battle of Lovejoy’s Station in Clayton County, according to Henry County Civil War Historian Mark Pollard.
Pollard said the new report was based on a 2008 survey of the Battle of Lovejoy’s Station, which prompted surveyors to redraw the battlefield boundaries originally set during a 1993 survey. The civil war historian said the expanded boundaries incorporate parts of Lovejoy and Hampton, providing a more accurate and complete picture of the Union’s advance into Lovejoy’s Station in late August of 1864, when Union Soldiers were met by Confederate Soldiers along the Macon and Western Railroad, in present-day Lovejoy.
He said the battle continued to move eastward into Hampton, expanding into the wavy terrain of Nash Farm Battlefield toward Walnut Creek in unincorporated Henry County. “When they resurveyed in 2008, they expanded the battlefields to reflect the calvary battles that stretched from Lovejoy to Walnut Creek,” said Pollard. “The biggest change in the survey is the overall size of the battlefield, which has been increased to reflect the approach at Nash Farm Battlefield, the only portion of the battle that has been preserved.”
Nash Farm Battlefield was acquired by the Henry County Board of Commissioners in 2005, he added. The property now serves dual purposes as a venue for county events, as well as recreational and educational Civil War re-enactments. He said a segment of land across Jonesboro Road from the Nash Farm Battlefield site, was also recently designated by the National Park Service as an endangered battlefield site.
The 204-acre Nash Farm Battlefield, on the other hand, is the only segment of the roughly 1,180-acre Lovejoy’s Station core battlefield area that is preserved, according to John Culpepper, chairman of the Georgia Civil War Commission. Culpepper, who also took part in the 2008 survey, noted that the battlefield is one of only 27 battlefields in the state eligible for a listing in the National Register of Historic Places. “You’ve got a treasure here,” Culpepper said. “It used to be a well-known place locally, but now it’s getting worldwide attention.”
“It basically puts Nash Farm Battlefield on the radar of the world,” added Pollard. “Nash Farm Battlefield was a significant part of the Battle of Lovejoy’s Station. And anybody can look up that battle, and come and see a portion of that battlefield that has been preserved.”
Pollard said he believes Nash Farm’s designation is reason to continue preserving the property for future generations to experience. “Just to be recognized by the National Park Service is an awesome thing,” he said. “It would be hard to imagine a battlefield when the landscape has been changed. At Nash Farm Battlefield, you can imagine what took place so many years ago. You can connect the landscape to the history, and the history to the actual soldiers who were mounted on the horses that charged across that field.”
The 2010 revised National Park Service report on Georgia’s Civil War battlefields for the portion including Lovejoy is available online to those interested. The address is:
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:
CONTACT: Daniel T. Elliott, The LAMAR Institute, Inc., P.O. Box 2992, Savannah, GA 31402
LAMAR Institute Aids in Discovery of Confederate Prison Near Millen
(MILLEN, GA., July 31, 2010; UPDATE October 6, 2012) The LAMAR Institute, Inc. participated in a search for Camp Lawton, a military prison built north of Millen, Georgia by the Confederates in late 1864 to house more than 30,000 U.S. Army prisoners. The search for the prison began in December, 2009 with a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey for the southwestern corner of the prison stockade at Magnolia Springs State Park. After getting a feel of the topography and the likely layout of the prison site as generally conceived, some discrepancy in the only available historical maps became evident to the research team. The two maps available for reference seemed less accurate than previously thought. A minimally-invasive evaluation was performed with a metal detector . This tool, augmented along with GPR data, was used to get a feel of whatever prison “footprint” might still be present. Promising areas were immediately identified. One particular area, however, clearly stood out as likely being inside the prison and possibly adjacent to a stockade wall boundary, The discoveries were made south of a small creek documented as running directly through the prison yard. Armed with this new evidence, a quick reassessment of the prison layout was theorized. The long held belief, that the larger portion of the prison site was now the location of the Bo Ginn Aquarium facility and former U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services fish hatchery, came in question. An unexplored wooded area just west of this facility was now suspected to contain a portion of the Civil War prison. A quick reconnaissance of the wooded tract was made. Our crew believed that this property was within the Magnolia Springs State Park property. This particular tract had changed hands several times in recent years and was currently Federally-owned property under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. As it turned out, this misunderstanding yielded huge dividends in unmasking the ruins of Camp Lawton, After a very limited and quick evaluation by Georgia Southern University (GSU) anthropologists, the true site of the prison was confirmed. The brick ruins of a documented brick oven complex built fot the use of the prison., was tentatively identified. If this is indeed one of the brick ovens, and the placement of this feature on historical maps was accurate, then the location of the prison shifts further to the west of what was previously theorized. Further testing by GSU confirmed that this was the correct prison site location. Camp Lawton, once thought to be an insignificant Civil War site in our state, now appears to offer a great opportunity for understanding the daily life of Prisoners of War during the War Between the States.
UPDATE!!! OCTOBER 4th 2012—
Here is video from October 4, 2012 showing the deep trench and palisade post remnant along the southern stockade wall at Camp Lawton. Unearthed by Time Team America–at the location where GPR survey by The LAMAR Institute’s geophysical team indicated a large, deep soil disturbance most likely to be Camp Lawton. Other video footage showing the feature is posted on youtube.com.
Take this Job
August 12, 2010
When I was a young lad in college, I took a summer job canning drinks for Coca Cola. It was a hot miserable job on an evening shift, where we made millions of canned cola that summer. One afternoon before heading to work, my father and I lay in two rope hammocks in our front yard on Soapstone Ridge, DeKalb County, Georgia. One of our neighbors, Dr. Driggers, was hosting a barbecue fundraiser for Sheriff Pat Jarvis’ reelection campaign. My father and I had absolutely no interest in attending and our conversation dealt with antiquities, family lore, and fresh work experiences. As we swang and talked our conversation was suddenly shattered by the amplified strains of Johnny Paycheck and his band with a strong intro to his hit song, “Take This Job and Shove It”. Startled at first and then without speaking, my father, who had recently retired after 35 years at the Ford Motor Company factory, and I, simply smiled at each other and enjoyed the song. Johnny sang the entire song, followed by silence. We continued to swing without speaking for another 20 minutes, then I got up, climbed in the family Ford and drove to work. I thought of that moment when I heard the recent news story about Mr. Slater and Jet Blue. Payday was never like this!
Click on the link for the archaeological testing report for the Fort Howard Paper Mill project in Effingham County, Georgia by Garrow & Associates.AR_0720
Animal Tales from the Birdhouse
June 29, 2010
Lookin Out My Front Door, I see my full-size and slightly overweight labrador retriever Caledonia jumping repeatedly high in the air, directly underneath the bird feeder. As I walk nearer, I see the problem, a fat squirrel is trying to climb up the metal rod that suspends the bird feeder from the pecan tree, but try as he/she might, the squirrel cannot reach the top of the rod, and so he/she slides back to the roof of the bird feeder and immediately tries it again with the same effect. This goes on for about 1 minute, which is 7 minutes in dog, and what must have seemed an eternity to the squirrel. Finally, after I shook the bird feeder a few times trying to end this stalemate, the squirrel reached the top of the rod and made it to freedom, this time. Good dog, Caledonia!
Fort Hawkins Fourth of July Celebration
June 25, 2010
Fort Hawkins Fourth of July Celebration
Noon-5 p.m. July 4, 2010, Emery Highway, Macon, Georgia, USA. Benjamin Hawkins in his American Revolutionary uniform will present a patriotic program at 2 p.m. concluding with the original Star Spangled Banner poem. Benefit BBQ plates, featuring famous Fresh Air BBQ, are $12.50 each and will be served from 1-4 p.m. with tickets available from all Fort Hawkins Commission members, by calling 742-3003 or at http://www.forthawkins.com. Free admission.